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l^tgO— 1562. 




H IRarratipe an& Critical Ibistotp, 






publicatton Committee. 

^be Scbwenktelbers 

in Pennsylvania, 


Part XII. of a Narrative and Critical History 


The Pennsylvania-German Society 



# Illustrated by Julius F. Sachse, Litt.D. 


Copyrighted 1904 


pennsTBlvania-Cerman Socictig. 










THE following letter is offered by 
the author as a reason and apol- 
ogy for allowing his name to 
appear in the list of historians 
who have so well been telling 
the story of the Pennsylvania- 
Germans in the annals of the 
Pennsylvania-German Society. 

"Lebanon, Pa., Nov. 12, 1900. 
Prof. H. W. Kriebel, 

Pennsburg, Pa., 

My Dear Sir: 

I am pleased to inform you that our Executive Com- 
mittee at its recent meeting in Easton selected you to write 
a paper on the " Schwenkf elders " especially with regard 
totheirhistoryin this Commonwealth. * * * A declination 
under these circumstances would be a serious matter to us. 
Sincerely yours, 

H. M. M. Richards, Secretary. 

Thanks are hereby offered to the Society for esteeming 
the story of the Schwenkfelders worthy of a place in the 

viii Preface, 

critical History of Pennsylvania now being published by 
the Society, for the honor conferred in entrusting to the 
writer the preparation of such account, for the kindness 
and consideration uniformly shown him in his labors. A 
general acknowledgment of indebtedness is also due and 
hereby cheerfully made to the various institutions and indi- 
viduals who have aided the writer in the prosecution of his 
study and research. 

This sketch is in some measure at least a pioneer work 
and thus has not had the benefit of previous publications 
refined in the critic's crucible. Its shortcomings are pain- 
fully evident to the author but he hopes that they may not 
discredit the more fortunate features nor the subject itself. 
No claim is laid to originality. As a matter of fact almost 
every sentence may be traced to some original authority, 
almost exclusively German. An honest effort has been 
made by the writer to give facts faithfully as found, to 
avoid drawing inferences or flattering fancies of the imagi- 
nation. Should some kind reader feel that undue promi- 
nence has been given in the sketch to the religious and 
doctrinal phase of life, it is hoped that a careful perusal of 
the whole will satisfy him that to eliminate this feature 
would be equal to taking the Prince of Denmark out of 
"Hamlet," Christian out of Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Prog- 
ress " or Washington out of the " History of the American 
Revolution." Footnotes respecting translations or sources 
of information have been omitted because in most cases 
the material would be inaccessible to the general reader. 
Neither did it seem desirable to note the misstatements and 
misrepresentations made by various writers. 

The initial letters at the beginning of each chapter are 
fac-simile reproductions from the manucript hym.n-book 
written by Christopher Kriebel, 1765. 



It is sincerely hoped that the present effort may induce 
a more thorough study of Schwenkfelder history and the 
publication of monographs on special phases of the sub- 
ject. The reader will not forget that he is viewing the 
life of a simple country folk and that the thought so beau- 
tifully set forth in Gray's Elegy is still worthy of consider- 

'* Let not ambition mock their useful toil, 
Their homely joys and destiny obscure, 
Nor grandeur hear with a disdainful smile 
The short and simple annals of the poor." 

^AST Green vECLE, Pa., 

January 19, 1904. 

T T r T 


Casper Schwenkfeld i_i6 


Schwenkf elders before their Migration to Saxony . 17-25 

Schwenkfelders in Saxony and their Migration to 
Pennsylvania 26-'i4 

Settlement in Pennsylvania '55-')4 

Efforts at Church Organization, 173^-1782 . . . 55-70 


Adoption of the Constitution of 1782 7i-79 

Church life under the Constitution of 1782 . . . S0-102 

Relation between the Schwenkfelders and Zinzendorf 
in Pennsylvania lo-^-iio 


Secular Education among the Schwenkfelders . . 120-138 




Schwenkfelders as Citizens 139-160 

Private life of the Schwenkfelders 1 61-182 

Bibliographical Notes 183-204 

(a) Draft of letter by Rev. Christopher Schultz . 206-219 
(3) Marriage Contract 220-225 


Casper Schwenkfeld • Frontispiece. 

Schwenkfelder Historians facing page i6 

Christian Hohburg " 

Memories of By-Gone Days " 

Early Homes " 

Yeakel Cottage '* 

Spinning with spindle " 

Schwenkfelder Homes " 

Church Architecture " 

Schwenkfelder Ministers • " 

Church and Graveyard " 

Meeting House 1793 • " 

Weaving Tape, Heddle loom " 

At Church 

Manuscript Volumes .,..-....• " 

Sampler by Regina Heebner 1794 " 

The von Schwenkfeld arms . . " 

A Group of Nonogenarians " 



















1. Head Piece i 

2. Arms of Liegnitz i 

3. Schwenkfeld Title-page, 1524 2 

4. Frontispiece, 1564 15 

5. Tail Piece 16 

6. Head Piece 17 

7. Initial I,etter T 17 


8. MS. Title-page, 1745 .... 19 

9. Emigrants afoot 26 

10. Initial Letter P 26 

11. Tail Piece 34 

12. Head Piece 35 

13. Initial Letter P 35 

14. MurderofMrs.Schultz, 1750. 44 

( xiii ) 


Illustrations in Text. 


15. Map by David Schultz, 1767. 46 

16. Head Piece 55 

17. Initial Letter 1 55 

18. Editions of the Schultz 

Catechism 65 

19. Schwenkfelder Hymn Books. 67 

20. Spinning Wheel 70 

21. Head Piece 71 

22. Initial Letter W 71 

23. Tail Piece 79 

24. Head Piece 80 

25. Initial Letter A 80 

26. Ornamental Pen Work, 1806. 97 

27. Arms of the Holy Roman 

Empire 102 

28. Head Piece 103 

29. Initial Letter M 103 

30. Wheel for Spinning . . . .119 

31. Head Piece 120 

32. Initial Letter K 120 

33. Minute Book of Schools. . . 122 

34. School Books, 1790 133 

35. A Relic of By-Gone Days . 138 

36. Head Piece 139 


37. Initial Letter U 139 

38. Translation of address by 

Hopkins 142 

39. Auditors' Report. . . . 145 

40. Letter by Israel Pemberton. 147 

41. Tailpiece 160 

42. Head Piece 161 

43. Initial Letter S 161 

44. Notes on Bible Study,| . . . 164 

45. A MS. Hymn Book 166 

46. Receipt for Mission Money, 173 

47. A Schwenkfelder Music 

Book 177 

48. MS. Hymn Book for Family 

Worship 181 

49. Head Piece 183 

50. Initial Letter T 183 

51. A Few Title Pages 195 

52. Head Piece 203 

53. Initial Letter A . . . . 203 

54. Schwenkfeld hrms 205 

55. Vignette 218 

56. Tail Piece 219 






Casper Schwenkfeld.^ 



the oldest child in a family of 
four, was born of Catholic parents 
at Ossig near Liegnitz in Silesia, 
Germany, 1490 (1489?), and died 
at Ulm, December 10, 1562. 
The family, which was of the 
nobility and could trace the story 
of its ancestry several hundred 
years, ended about two hundred 
years after his birth. 

Taught by priests who bribed 
him with sugared cakes, he, as a Catholic, early learned 
to repeat his lessons of Romish praise and prayer ; he 
later studied in Liegnitz and at Frankfurt, Cologne and 
other universities. 

Having prepared himself for his station, though his 
general culture may perhaps have been somewhat limited, 
he, while yet a young man, entered upon the life of a 
courtier and as such served at several courts ; first, at the 

1 Variations in the spelling of Schwenkfeld's name : Caspar, Cas- 
par, Casper, Chaspar, Gasper, Kaspar; Schwenckueld, Scbwenckfeld, 
Schwenckfeldt, Schwenkfelt, Schwenckhfeldt, Schewenkfeldt, Schwenk- 


2 The Pennsylvania- Gertnan Society. 

court of Duke Carl of Miinsterberg, a grandson of King 
Podiebrad of Bohemia, where the views of Huss were 
upheld and probably impressed on his receptive heart; 


Schwenkfeld versus Luther. 3 

later, at the court of Duke Friedrich II. of Liegnitz, as 
Hofrat or aulic councilor. 

During his courtier life, which lasted quite a number of 
years, Schwenkfeld probably did not take a deep interest 
in the Bible, but, God having touched his heart, he with- 
drew from court life to Liegnitz where he preached and 
taught. Here he became an intense student of the Bible, 
theology, the Church Fathers and the Greek language. 
When the advance waves of the Lutheran upheaval struck 
Silesia, Schwenkfeld rejoiced; when Friedrich II. em- 
braced the Reformation, Schwenkfeld heartily encouraged 
him and threw his own whole life into the movement, thus 
greatly aiding in the spread of the new light in Silesia, 
for which he received the good wishes of Luther. 

The want of harmony between the theories of Luther 
and Schwenkfeld, recognizable in the two letters written 
by the latter in 1524, became an open and endless discord 
between the parties themselves a year later. Schwenkfeld 
saw that he could not agree with Luther in reference to the 
nature of Christ's presence in the Lord's Supper. Having 
talked and prayed over the matter with his friends he, 
after further earnest study and prayer, went with letters of 
introduction to Bugenhagen and Justus Jonas at Witten- 
berg for the purpose of laying his views before Luther 
both orally and by books and manuscripts. A talk lasting 
several days followed, after which Schwenkfeld went 
home in good spirits, to receive later a fiery letter from 
Luther in which, among other things, the charge is made 
that either the writer, Luther, or Schwenkfeld must be the 
bond-servant of the devil. The storm of persecution which 
thus began to show itself was destined, under God's Provi- 
dence, to blow about the heads of Schwenkfeld and his 
followers for more than 200 years, and though on Penn's 
soil a refuge was found in 1734, its after effects may be 
seen and felt to this day. The system of doctrine which 

4 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

Schwenkfeld had formulated at this time and which proved 
beyond doubt that he was a fearless, conscientious and pro- 
found thinker even then, was developed unaltered with the 
passing years and maintained unflinchingly in minutest de- 
tail to the hour of death. 

Silesia at this time was budding into new life and a rich 
soil into which the seeds of the Reformation might drop 
lay ready. Schwenkfeld, although he had been repulsed 
by Luther, maintained his position by speech and pen 
both in public and private with the aid of his bosom friend, 
Crautwald. He thus won many adherents to his views 
and there was a promising prospect that Silesia, beginning 
at Liegnitz, would embrace the "Reformation by the 
Middle Way" as the movement under Schwenkfeld was 
called. Friedrich II. and nearly all the ministers of Lieg- 
nitz having embraced the doctrine, the University of Lieg- 
nitz was projected, partly organized and put into operation, 
soon to be smothered by adverse influences beyond the 
control of its friends. Opposing forces were at work at 
the same time, however. The publication of one of 
Schwenkfeld's tracts by Oecolampadius helped to increase 
the wrath and zeal of Luther and the Lutheran ministers 
against Schwenkfeld. The issue of Schwenkfeld's de- 
fense of his own views about the Lord's Supper without 
his consent or knowledge by Zwingli in Zurich in 1528 
led the Bishop of Vienna to oppose Schwenkfeld in writ- 
ing which in turn led King Ferdinand to serve notice on 
Friedrich of Liegnitz that he should punish the new 
teacher. To save his friends, Schwenkfeld upon this left 
home, voluntarily and not as an exile by the will of the 
duke, to live away from home and its comforts, from 
friends and kindred all the remaining days of his life. 
The letter of pardon which brought with it a chance to re- 

Intolerant Decrees. 5 

turn to his home which was offered by the king, was not 
accepted since it would have implied that he should rec- 
oncile himself to the Church, its offices, regulations and 
sacraments, to teach only what the Church taught and to 
publish nothing without the knowledge and acceptance of 
the king. 

Schwenkfeld lived thereafter in Strasburg, Nuremberg, 
Augsburg, Ulm and other important centers, besides visit- 
ing friends and staying temporarily in many of the free 
imperial cities of South Germany, persecution following him 
wherever he went. From Strasburg he was exiled in 
1533 ; from Augsburg, compelled to withdraw in 1535 ; at 
Tubingen after a colloquy, peace and cessation from per- 
secution were promised though not publicly proclaimed, 
^^535 '■> ^t Ulm inquisition machinery was set in motion 
against him, happily set at rest, however, by the War of 
Smalcald. In 1558 he wrote that he was nowhere secure 
and that he could not move about without being in con- 
siderable danger. Decrees were issued against him, his 
books were confiscated and burned, his printers were for- 
bidden to print, his booksellers, to sell his books. He was 
denounced in pulpit by priest and pastor, in church con- 
ference by almost every important gathering. Those who 
aided and comforted him placed themselves in jeopardy 
and at times suffered. Charges were brought by those 
even who by their own confession had scarcely seen his 
books or read them ; calumnies were rehashed and re- 
vamped, nor could an earnest searcher after the truth in- 
vestigate for himself because the literature was suppressed. 
The church leaders, from whom the persecution mainly 
emanated, seemed to vie with each other in reproaching, re- 
viling, defaming, calumniating, condemning and execrat- 
ing. He was called : Ketzer, Widertauffer, Secter, Rotten- 

6 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

geist, Reinengeist, Winkel-kriecher, Schleicher, Meuch- 
ling, Stenckfeld, Schelmen, Ertz-ketzer, Schwarmer, 
Verfiihrer, Narren, Grillenmeister, unsinniger toller Teu- 
fel, Donatisten, Valentinianer, Entychianer. 

And yet in spite of it all and perchance at times on ac- 
count of it all, he could not be silenced, he could not be 
tempted to deny his Christ by doing an unchristian act, or 
by betraying what he believed Christ had taught him by 
His Spirit, the common people could not be incited against 
him, many princes and nobles defended him and had it 
not been for strenuous state measures, large sections of 
Silesia would in all probability have adopted the " Refor- 
mation by the Middle Way." He himself labored assid- 
uously in the defense of his views. He preached, wrote, 
dictated to his friends, published books, and indirectly 
through his adherents spread his doctrines, trusted mes- 
sengers carrying messages back and forth. When the 
printing presses were closed against him, loving and will- 
ing hands multiplied manuscript copies ; when misrepre- 
sentations were made, he sent books, tracts and letters and 
sought opportunity to explain and defend himself. When 
his Feier-Abend drew near and the shades of night be- 
gan to fall, Schwenkfeld's soul was calm, peaceful and 
at rest. No undercurrent or eddy of ill-will, hatred or 
revenge to others disturbed the surface and the grace of 
heaven was reflected from his entire being. As all through 
his life, he exemplified his life-motto : Nil iriste, Christo 
recepto. He spent his last days as he had spent a long 
and useful life, in his Father's business, praying, reading, 
talking about his Saviour. Fully assured that his name 
was written in the Lamb's Book of Life, he committed 
himself into the hands of Him whom he had served so 
many years and thus fell asleep to awake in the land where 
there shall be no more death, neither sorrow nor crying. 

Dectrines of Schwenkfeld. *j 

In attempting a hasty glimpse at the doctrines and 
motives of the man, it is well to keep in mind what he 
himself said of the aim and purpose of his life. In 1535 
he wrote: "After God's gracious visitation some years 
since, I committed myself wholly to my Lord Jesus Christ 
and through Him in the Holy Ghost gave myself a living 
sacrifice into the nurture, training, and education of my 
heavenly Father. By His grace I do this now, praying 
the Lord to teach me to know Him and to strengthen and 
establish me in such knowledge unto the life eternal." 
Like the apostle whom Jesus loved, Schwenkfeld was 
leaning on his Master's bosom for doctrine, guidance, com- 
fort, and, if we may judge him by his fruits according to 
the Saviour's rule, Jesus must have loved him. His life and 
theology were Johannine, Christocentric. The glory of 
Jesus was his master-passion : he and his followers were 
hence often called (perhaps partly in derision) " Confes- 
sors of the Glory of Christ." His doctrines were laid by 
him in earnest prayer before his Lord and compared with 
the Bible and the writings of the Church Fathers. Build- 
ing on Jesus as his Rock and Foundation, he evolved a 
line of thought briefly and inadequately stated (in part) in 
the following propositions which are drawn from and ex- 
pressed in his own words and which touch the main doc- 
trines around which the storm chiefly seemed to center. 

1. The only thing needful for man's temporal and 
eternal happiness, his salvation, is the spiritual knowledge 
of Christ, the experience of the love, wisdom and power of 
God in the believing heart through the Holy Ghost. 

2. God is a Spirit and works man's salvation through the 
only mediator, Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, to-day, 
and forever, the Lamb of God foreordained by wisdom 
divine from the beginning to be the cause and ground, the 

8 The Pennsylvania- German Society, 

origin and end of man's salvation and not indirectly through 
man or the word or work of man as through channels, in- 
struments or means of grace. Redemption and the Plan 
of Redemption are, therefore, the same before as after the 
Incarnation, with as without the historic knowledge of the 
H0I3' Scriptures or of Jesus Christ, in and through the inner, 
unwritten, uncreated, eternal Word of God, the Logos 
which was from the beginning. 

3. Jesus Christ is the great mystery of godliness of 
whom all the Scriptures testify, the eternal, natural, only 
begotten Son of God the Father Almighty, the second Per- 
son in the Trinity from whom and the Father the Holy 
Spirit proceeds, true God and true man, undivided and in- 
divisible as to His dual nature in time and eternity. 

4. Christ's mediatorial office implies that God gives His 
gifts, answers prayer and receives into Heaven, only 
through Jesus Christ and for His sake, that the way to 
Heaven is through the body and blood of Christ, that He 
is the true throne of grace whence mercy comes, that 
Christ Himself is what He gives us, our redemption, our 
peace, our reconciliation, our sanctification, our justifica- 
tion, that in Christ alone can man lay off the sinful old 
nature and put on the holy new nature. 

5. There is a duality in the nature of things which must 
be observed in all study of the Bible and religion. The 
one element is of the earth, physical, visible, pertaining to 
the kingdom of this world and the present life ; the other 
is heavenly, spiritual, invisible, pertaining to the Kingdom 
of God and the life everlasting. The former explains, 
illustrates and points out the latter, but is not the latter and 
cannot produce the latter. 

6. Jesus Christ being the Author and Finisher of man's 
faith, all true service derives value only from the inner, 

Doctrines of Schwenkfeld. 9 

spiritual element as the sinner hears God's Word directly 
from the Father and all true, public, acceptable service 
can and does only proceed from within outward. God is 
a Spirit and must be worshipped in the spirit by the heart 
and can not be adored by material things, services, or 
offerings, ceremonies or sacraments. 

7. The Bible, both Old and New Testaments, inspired 
of God, written by holy men, profitable for doctrine, re- 
proof, correction and instruction, though in itself dead, 
and without power to heal, vivify or save, and not under- 
stood by the unregenerate or the spiritually unenlightened, 
is, for the faithful in Christ, a treasure and mine to be 
prized over every earthly treasure. Its words should be 
read, reread, digested and meditated upon. Theology 
should be constructed from it and as far as possible should 
be expressed in its language. Faith is to be tested by it. 
Whatever is true, right and based upon the Word of God 
should be maintained and he who yields truth thus given, 
imperils his own salvation. 

8. Sin consisting not only of the outward act, the guilt, 
weakness, want or defect of nature, the corrupt will or the 
heart purpose, but also of the total corruption, the innate 
uncleanness, the abiding inclination of the flesh to evil, 
came upon mankind through the guilt and transgression 
of Adam, who, after the creation, became disobedient and 
brought sin and death on mankind so that all are conceived 
in sin, born as the children of wrath and are by nature 
enemies of God and His grace and under condemnation. 

9. Forgiveness of sin is not a mere non-imputation of 
sin, nor a mere remission of God's punishment for sin ; it 
is also a killing, destroying and taking away of sin from 
the heart and conscience, removing all accusation and con- 
demnation ; it is a living experience and assurance of the 

lO The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

love, mercy, favor and grace of God in Christ Jesus, 
bringing peace and rest into the soul, love and joy into the 
outward life. 

10. Man becomes a Christian and child of God when 
he, hearing the true Word of God, Jesus Christ in his 
heart, allows himself to be drawn by God the Father and 
through Faith to be regenerated ; life, light, peace, joy, 
strength enter through the inner Word of God, effecting 
a beginning of the divine life and of the indwelling of the 
spirit of God. Jesus Christ is not only the mystery of 
faith, of the gospel and of the grace of God ; he is also 
our example and perfect model whose footsteps are to be 
followed abidingly in the daily life. He who receives 
Jesus only as a Saviour, not as the Christian's model and 
ideal, has a dead Christ, a historic Christ, despising god- 
liness and building on a fictitious faith founded on reason. 

11. True Christian faith is a divine gift and power sepa- 
rate and distinct from all elements of earth or the works of 
man by which the sinner is transformed, regenerated, en- 
lightened, and kept unto final redemption. It is not intel- 
lection, nor theorization, nor a mere conviction of the truth 
of the gospel or acceptance of the gospel or trust in the 
promise of God's mercy. 

12. The true Christian Church, having Christ as its 
Head, is the Body of Christ, the seed of Abraham, the 
house of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, the tem- 
ple of the Holy Ghost, the City of God. In such body 
there must be oneness of Spirit, love, faith and knowledge, 
and all are brethren. The visible Church based on such 
inner oneness should be composed of Christians, of those 
who call on the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and who 
living accordingly do not reject Him in their daily conduct. 
Here the Spirit of Christ rules, protects, teaches, defends 

Doctrines q/ Schwenkfeld. ii 

and directs all servants and services. A strict Church 
discipline by which the erring are reproved and those who 
live in open sin are put away from the body of believers is 
an essential element in the work of the visible Church. 
Outward concord in law, doctrine, ceremony or sacrament 
does not constitute a Church of Christ, nor are these the 
marks of a church. 

13. The primary and essential element in baptism is the 
inner grace of God through the pouring out of the waters 
of life. The other element is the washing of the body. 
Baptism of the body follows faith and is a confession of 
Christ before the world, a public reception into the body 
of professing believers, a visible sign of what the believer 
professes to have received into his soul, a cleansing and 
purification. In the Lord's Supper a dual eating and 
drinking takes place — the one is invisible which the 
Lord the Son of Man gives unto His own, the imperishable 
bread of life which is Christ Himself through a true and 
living faith ; the other is visible and is called a bread of 
the Lord, which the Lord has commanded to be broken 
and to be eaten in remembrance of Him, by the assembled 
body of believers who through faith have communion of 
His body and blood. Christ did not establish the Supper 
in order that the believer might seek His body and blood 
in it, much less that he should seek forgiveness of sin, life 
and salvation in it. 

14. The Church and State, belonging to distinctly dif- 
ferent kingdoms, should be kept separate. The State has 
no right to force its subjects to adopt any particular reli- 
gious services or belief, or to promote the use of the same 
by force of arms, or to kill or put into exile those who 
differ fron^ the State, or to unite the sword of the spirit 
with the sword of iron or in the name of the gospel to 

12 The Pennsylvanta-Gerfnan Society. 

make treaties with foreign nations, princes and powers or 
to require its subjects or officers to be Christians or pro- 
fessors of Christ, or to build up or destroy any religious 
services, or to appoint or discharge the priests or ministers 
of the Church. The Church has no right to force the con- 
science of any subject through the State, or to seek pro- 
tection for life or doctrine under the State. 

The great aims in the life of Schwenkfeld were to make 
sure of the forgiveness of his sin, the regeneration of his 
heart and life, the acceptance unto the life eternal by his 
Christ. He never allowed himself to become guilty of any 
vice that needs glossing over, nor to speak or write a word 
even to his closest friends in secret that might not be 
uttered in the presence of the most refined ladies of any 
period. He was one of Nature's true noblemen who never 
forgot his manners. Through his whole life there ran a 
deep undercurrent of commendable earnestness, modesty, 
gentleness, friendliness, humility, reverence, playful hu- 
mor, sincere piety. Christian forgiveness and a laudable 
desire to be helpful to others. The sense of the sublimity 
of the character grows as one contemplates that by gently 
easing his conscience, holding his theology in abeyance, 
attending church once a year and partaking of the sacred 
emblems at the table of the Lord, he might have enjoyed 
home, peace, rest, riches, and gone to his grave laden with 
the cheap honors the world bestows. 

Christ having made him free, he would not allow him- 
self to be drawn into bondage of any man or body of men 
and could not be brought to pledge fealty to any chijrch 
or body of believers ; neither would his genuine Christian 
spirit allow him to separate ^himself from any godly man, 
all souls being dear to him, who loved God and Jesus 
Christ and lived Christian lives. He could not and would 

Caspar Schwenkfeld. 13 

not play tricks with conscience ; hence whatever God gave 
him to see he maintained, nor would he yield a jot or 
tittle whatever the consequences might be. This was not 
lack of prudence or judgment but Christ-like fidelity to 
truth. He loved the Catholic, the Lutheran, the Zwing- 
lian, the Anabaptist, the adherents of all the diverse faiths, 
all with whom he came into contact, and, separating person 
from doctrine, fearlessly and freely criticised what seemed 
to him the ecclesiasticism, externalism, worldliness and 
temporizing of the churches. Criticising all, though he 
was not prompted by any desire for mere controversy or 
for lording it over others, he laid himself open to assault 
from all and thus became the target for many a venomous 
dart, but he maintained throughout a hopeful spirit and 
felt assured that some day his views, which indeed were 
not his but those of his master, would be adopted. He 
felt that he was in the hands of a loving Father, that 
even the hairs of his head were all numbered and that, 
though the future was unknown to him, finally redemption 
would be his. He as a lamb brought to the slaughter and as 
a sheep before her shearers never revenged himself, never 
returned evil for evil, never persecuted. He blessed them 
that cursed him, did good to them that hated him and prayed 
for them that despitefully used him and persecuted him. 

He stood aloof from church membership — not because he 
did not long for Christian communion, for his big heart had a 
warm spot for every Christian ; not because he undervalued 
the Scriptures, for he made it the test of all his teaching ; 
not because he rejected the sacraments or other Christian 
services, for he taught that the external in worship should 
be observed and made use of and not be neglected ; but 
because he could not assent to the doctrine of the " means 
of grace," because the patient, lowly spirit of Jesus was 

14 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

not observed by the churches, because the Church did not 
do its work in the spirit of freedom, but in the spirit of 
bondage ; because the churches persecuted him for not 
believing as they did ; because the church used the sword 
in defending and promoting Christ's Kingdom and he 
could not take part in it, since it is the duty of Christians 
to withdraw from all idolatry, error and abuse in the ser- 
vice of God. Less than three years before his death he 
wrote : "I would rather die ten deaths than join churches 
that on account of their statutes and articles of faith, con- 
trary to the Bible, the example of Christ, His apostles, the 
first Christian churches, and the Church Fathers, burn, 
hang, drown, or in other waj's persecute in France, Spain, 
Italy, Germany and elsewhere many God-fearing and 
pious men who accept Christ and the Apostles' Creed and 
live holy lives." 

He never organized or tried to organize the adherents of 
his faith into a church. Possibly he is open to criticism on 
this point ; but to organize meant to fight, to fight meant 
to betray his Christ, to betray and to confess were in his 
mind diametrically opposite and mutually exclusive ; hence 
since man's salvation does not depend on the observance of 
any external ceremony, he did not and could not feel any 
call to organize a body of believers in his name. Besides, 
to call a body of believers by his name was in his estimation 
vanity and to be shunned, but when the term " Schwenk- 
felders " as a name for his brethren became a term of re- 
proach he raised the question whether it was not the duty 
of those who believed as he did to adopt the name, lest by 
Satan's trickery they should be led to reject the doctrine 
under a semblance of rejecting a man's name. 

Space will not permit any consideration of the contro- 
versies into which Schwenkfeld was drawn, or any phi- 

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1 6 The Pennsylvania- Ger7nan Society. 

losophizing on what the probable effect would have been 
had his spirit and attitude been assumed and exemplified 
in life by all those who were received into Christian fel- 
lowship or who took the name of Jesus on their lips in his 
and later times. It may not be amiss to close this chapter 
by quoting the words of Rev. Chester D. Hartranft, D.D., 
Honorary President of the Hartford Theological Seminary, 
the most eminent and most profound living authority on 
the subject. He says: " Schwenkfeld insisted on a new 
birth and a reformation of morals as preparatory to the re- 
construction of doctrine ; the restatement and development 
of doctrine was to be the outgrowth of a regenerated life 
in Christ under the Holy Ghost. More emphasis was put 
upon the direct reign of the Spirit than on the formal prin- 
ciple of the Scriptures, though by no means to any neglect 
of the latter. * * * In Schwenkfeld we find the source of 
many characteristics of modern Protestantism ; the func- 
tion of the laity, the right of representation, the freedom of 
conscience, the separation of Church and State, the eccle- 
siola in ecclesia, and many another principle that is now 
potent in all branches of Christendom, had their strongest 
champion in him in the day when these were heretical 
principles and when their assertion was at the peril of 
life ; there is scarcely a religious school, whether pietistic 
or liberal, that has not drawn some formative impulse 
from him through a hitherto unobserved absorption." 


The Schwenkfei^ders Before Their Migration to 


1 A HE followers of Schwenkfeld were 
il found in many parts of Germany, 

though mainly in Suabia and Silesia, 
in Italy, Switzerland, Bohemia, Mo- 
ravia and Holland. In some dis- 
tricts almost whole villages adopted 
this faith. Many princes and nobles 
were won to the cause by the Chris- 
tian life of Schwenkfeld and^ his 
disciples and by their system of doctrine, to be persuaded 
later to leave it again for state reasons. Had it not been 
for this, many others, both of the nobility and of the common 
people, would probably have cast their lot with the move- 
ment. In spite of the untoward circumstances, Schwenk- 
feld probably had at least 4,000 adherents at the time of 
his death. 

These people were subject to adverse winds from the 
very first and later were practically outlawed by the Augs- 
burg Confession, by the Truce of Nuremberg, by the 
Treaty of Augsburg and by the Treaty of Westphalia. In 
the time of persecution many embraced the provisions of 
law and fled to Glatz the mountainous region west of 
2 (17) 

i8 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

Silesia, where more protection was afforded. At times 
some free city or ruling prince might tolerate them or per- 
haps permit them to have their own churches and minis- 
ters to be rudely robbed, persecuted or exiled again by 

Petitions to those in authority were suppressed by under- 
officers, books were burned or cast into the sea, children 
were by force baptized into a faith that the parents could 
not conscientiously accept. They were cast into dark 
dungeons, to waste away and perish neglected in life and 
death. They were placed in the front line of battle in order 
that they might become slayers of their fellow-men and be 
slain by them, but they would not shoot others, neither were 
they shot. They were chained to the rowers' benches on 
galleys to toil as rowers and then to be cast overboard 
when life had fled. They found their graves under the 
waves of the sea or by the church walls where transgres- 
sors were buried or on the village commons where offal 
was cast and the cattle grazed. 

Their form of worship was quite simple. When they 
had no churches of their own, they met at the houses of 
the older members, sang, prayed, read the Scriptures and 
explained the Bible either by comments of their own or by 
reading the sermons of Schwenkfeld, Hiller, Werner or 
Weichenhan. In the training of the young they were very 
strict. Their Sunday services, according to one of their 
number, Martin John, Jr., were conducted as follows : " In 
the morning after each had offered his morning prayer, 
the people met and sang morning hymns standing, after 
which prayers were read from a book of prayers and 
hymns, particularly to the Holy Ghost, were sung stand- 
ing. Song and prayer followed, after which several ser- 
mons were read. Dinner having been served, singing 

Pennsylvania Manuscripts. 


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20 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

and prayer were resumed after which reading was engaged 
in, to be closed by singing and prayer standing. When 
they met during the week, much singing was practiced and 
prayer was wont to be offered before they parted." 

At the opening of the eighteenth century, the Schwenk- 
felders were reduced to less than 1,500 souls all told and 
were found mainly in the Silesian villages of Harpersdorf, 
Armenruh, Laubgrund, Hockenau, Lang-Neundorf, H6- 
fel and Lauterseifen. The}'^ were honest, quiet, modest, 
industrious, law-abiding, and as farmers, gardeners, 
weavers, apothecaries, merchants and professionalists in 
general, earned a living — precarious indeed at times — 
by the toil of their hands. On account of their industry 
and frugality they were in general protected by their 
landlords. As a church they had no existence, not having 
at any time been allowed for state reasons to have free 
and undisturbed church organizations. The condition of 
the people at this time is described at considerable length 
by Balzer Hoffman, one of their number, later their pastor 
in Pennsylvania. Among other things he says in refer- 
ence to this period of time : "We lived scattered in dif- 
ferent villages and belonged to the church and under the 
ministers with respect to church service and church dues. 
We had no knowledge of our own sj'stem of doctrine ; in- 
difference, lukewarmness and ignorance prevailed ; one 
family after another gave up the faith. Intermarriage 
with members of the churches took place. Those who 
saw the tendency hardly dared to speak on account of 
minister, neighbor and government. Books of new and 
strange doctrines were eagerly read and popular ministers 
listened to and the teachings of the fathers neglected. 
Confusion followed and he who dared to say aught against 
this condition was looked upon as unduly attached to 
Schwenkfeld and pretending to be wiser than the fathers." 

Harder sdorf. 2 1 

The total decay and extinction of this confession of faith 
seemed at hand, but — as the Schwenkfelder ministers 
were wont to say — " God chose the persecutor's hand to 
transplant the faith into the soil of the New World and 
thus as on eagle's wings to carry it away from the land of 
oppression." A Lutheran minister said persecution came 
as a punishment from God because the Schwenkfelders 
did not become Lutherans. The books about the Schwenk- 
felders issued at this time, the conduct of Neander, 
Schneider and others, prepared the way for the Jesuit 
Mission. The immediate cause of the mission was the 
effort of the Lutherans to bring about the conversion of 
the Schwenkfelders to the Lutheran faith. Neander, the 
Lutheran pastor of Harpersdorf, failing in this, appealed 
to the magistracy. The attention of the imperial court 
was called to the case and there, contrary to Neander's 
plans, it was decided, through the machinations of the 
Jesuits, to make Catholics of the few remaining Schwenk- 
felders. Although Charles VL did not plan to drive them 
from their homes, he was fully determined to tolerate only 
the religious parties sanctioned by the Treaty of West- 
phalia and thus stood ready to be led by the Jesuits. A 
report on these people was therefore called for and fur- 
nished in the summer of 17 17 by the Catholic and the 
Lutheran church officers. Consultation and laying of plans 
followed. Judicial examinations of the Schwenkfelders 
were soon held. They were questioned on doctrine, their 
confession of faith and such books as gave light on their 
teaching being called for, and were then exhorted to join 
one of the three sanctioned religions. 

The imperial government decided to entrust the con- 
version of these people to the Jesuits and assigned Johan- 
nes Milan and Carolus Xavier Regent to this duty. They 

22 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

arrived on their field of labor in December, 17 19, and by 
their very coming brought consternation into the com- 
munity. They immediately went to work and at first tried 
to convert the people by kind words and argumentation. 
The Lutherans also went to work with renewed zeal and 
tried their skill. Rivalry thus sprang up and there was a 
seeming contest between the Lutherans and Catholics to 
see who could pervert the most Schwenkfelders. The 
Jesuits soon made threats against their rivals which were 
not heeded. On account of complaints, the Lutheran 
ministers were then called to Liegnitz and in the presence 
of the Jesuit missionaries were told that by imperial com- 
mand the Schwenkfelders were to be given over to the two 
missionaries, that they were to have no part in the parochial 
rights of the Lutherans, that henceforth no Lutheran was 
to perform any religious service for the Schwenkfelders 
who were to be buried in dishonor in the carrion pit, on the 
commons, or at the cross-roads or by the walls of ceme- 
teries, without song or tolling of bells or train of friends 
and mourners, with a wheelbarrow for their hearse. Early 
in 17 2 1 Milan, contrary to instructions, began to compel 
the women and children, instead of the grown men, to at- 
tend the missionary services. Matters were now assum- 
ing such a serious aspect that an appeal to the imperial 
court was decided upon. 

Accordingly, May 5, 1721, Christopher Hoffman, Balzer 
Hoffman and Balzer Hoffrichter left for Vienna the im- 
perial city as deputies to make a plea for toleration for 
their severely oppressed brethren at home. Hoffrichter 
did not stay long but the other two remained over four 
years. Neither of these deputies had any knowledge of 
the method of doing business at the imperial court ; 
officials who assisted them did so at the risk of losing their 

A-p-pcal to the Evi^eror. 23 

positions ; they had been grossly misrepresented ; their 
faith was not even recognized by the Treaty of Westphalia ; 
as a people they were hated, despised, and maligned by 
Church and State. Secret and true friends were found, 
however, in their need, by whose kind aid and counsel in 
part, seventeen memorials were presented to the imperial 
court of Charles VI. During this time Balzer Hoffman 
found time to write letters, visit friends, and compose 
hymns, sermons and extensive tracts on religious subjects. 
The expense incurred by the deputies must have fallen 
particularly heavy on a people already impoverished by 
the ravages of war and the burdensome fines imposed by 
the Jesuits. According to one account their leader Mel- 
chior Schultz confessed that to secure toleration they spent 
19,000 rix-dollars ($10,000-12,500). 

The condition of the Schwenkfelders at this time is 
well described by the Hon. C. Heydrick, in his Histori- 
cal Sketch of the Schivenkf elders. He says : " When pa- 
rents refused to present their children for instruction, they 
were imprisoned ; women were placed in the stocks and 
compelled to lie in cold rooms in the winter without as 
much as straw under them ; and when imprisonment failed 
to bring the people with their children to the missionary 
services, fines and extortions were added ; marriage was 
forbidden unless the parties would promise to rear their 
offspring in the Catholic faith, and when young people went 
into other countries to be married they were imprisoned 
for it on their return. The dead were not allowed Chris- 
tian burial in their church-yards where their ancestors of 
the same faith slept, but were required to be interred in 
cattle-ways and sorrowing friends were forbidden to follow 
the remains of loved ones to these ignominious resting 
places. * * * The missionaries claimed guardianship of 

24 The Pennsylvania- Gei'man Society. 

all orphan children of Schwenkfelders, and thus the last 
hours of the dying were embittered by the thought that 
their children must be educated in a faith that they them- 
selves abhorred. And to prevent escape from the horrible 
situation in which they were placed the people were for- 
bidden to sell their property or under any pretext to leave 
the country and severe penalties were denounced against 
any person who should assist a Schwenkfelder to escape 
by purchasing his property or otherwise." 

The last appeal of the deputies, dated July 28, 1725, 
was answered by a decree from the imperial court signed 
"Charles" which, among the stringent regulations, con- 
tained these words: "Furthermore, the Schwenkfelder 
congregations in their submissive requests to be tolerated 
in their confession of faith in the future are once for all 
refused, and they shall never hereafter venture to present 
new supplications." This decree meant for the Schwenk- 
felders new terrors and for the missionaries renewed zeal 
and redoubled efforts to let none of their game escape. 
For those who were most firm in their convictions it meant 
flight, and accordingly plans were laid in secret for relief 
by this method. 

The first baptism by force took place September 15, 
1725, when the child of George Mentzel only three weeks 
old was taken away from the mother's side by dragoons, 
carried to the priest and baptized. The father and grand- 
father were imprisoned for having refused to bring the 
child to baptism at the priest's command. The first one 
to flee was widow Barbara Marckel (nee Yeakel), who, 
with her four children, went to Friedersdorf, October 17, 
1725. On the twenty-sixth of October, Adam Wiegner, 
in behalf of the rest, wrote to Holland and asked the Men- 
nonites to use their influence to secure toleration and cer- 


.■^-■A- ■ ". 


;. - ' IrhtfnYrcdunilJivti 

K -m 



JULY 23. 1607— OCT. 29. 1675. 

Sojotirn to Gdrlitz. 25 

tain rights for them in their homes. This letter was re- 
ferred to the church in Amsterdam. Investigations were 
instituted and while these were in progress, a second letter 
was written by Wiegner, December 3, in which he re- 
peated the request for intercession in the first letter and 
asked whether they might be able to find a place of abid- 
ing and means of support in Holland. The oppression 
becoming more severe and answers from Holland being 
delayed, the Schwenkfelders wrote to Zinzendorf and 
begged him to assist them in finding a place in Herrnhut 
during the coming winter. The count immediately re- 
plied that in case of flight he would be glad to receive 
them and provide homes for them. Through a mutual 
friend, Pastor Schwedler, an asylum was also provided 
for them at Gorlitz. Places of refuge having thus been 
located, when the storm became more severe one family 
after another fled during February and the following 
months by night, abandoning homes, and kindred and all, 
taking naught with them but sorrow and poverty as Adam 
Wiegner wrote. 

Thus it came to pass that the Schwenkfelders left their 
homes and lands, their brothers and sisters, their fathers 
and mothers for Jesus' sake, to sojourn for a time in Sax- 
ony. It is irrelevant to the present undertaking to discuss 
the destiny of those that remained. It must suffice to say 
that many forsook the faith and that they did not get their 
full religious liberty until Frederick the Great claimed and 
secured Silesia and proclaimed freedom of faith to all its 
subjects. The handful left, though they had remained 
true in adversity, could not stand prosperity and gradually 
forsook the faith of their fathers. A century later, in 
1826, the last professing Schwenkfelder, Melchior Dorn, 
was laid to his rest at Harpersdorf. 


The Schwenkfelders in Saxony and their Migra- 
tion TO Pennsylvania. 

EARLY all the Schwenkfelders exiled 
from Silesia found a place of refuge in 
Upper Lusatia, the eastern part of the 
electorate Saxony, ruled over during 
their stay by Frederick Augustus I. 
and his son, Frederick Augustus II. 
The Treaty of Westphalia defined 
their religious rights which of course 
regarded them here also as outlaws. Some were received 
at Herrnhut, to be transferred later to Berthelsdorf, who 
thus became a part of the diversified population of that 
celebrated community ; some were received at Gorlitz 
and a few at other places and thus between 400 and 500 
Silesians gradually found homes on the soil of Saxony. 

At Herrnhut, Zinzendorf seems to have given to them the 
right of buying land and building homes ; at Gorlitz they 
could only rent places and were not allowed to hold reli- 
gious w^orship together in public or in private. They 
were in general received so well, however, that they began 
to think of staying permanently and made preparations ac- 
cordingly. Man}'^ of them were in destitute circumstances, 


Berthelsdorf and G'drlitz. 27 

but they must have begun to accumulate property, for by 
the stories circulated and put in print one must infer that 
they were at least looked upon as people of means. 
From a reply to questions made by the Schwenkfelders 
about this time the following figures as to means of liveli- 
hood are gathered : spinners, 29 ; day-laborers, 9 ; car- 
penters, 5 ; dealers, 6 ; shoemakers, 3 ; linen-weavers, 3 ; 
farmers, 3 ; cabinet-maker, i ; tailor, i. 

They probably attended the religious services of the 
church at Berthelsdorf more or less regularly but they 
could not see their way clear to become members, for in 
essence it was a Lutheran body and to be received into it 
meant to the faithful Schwenkfelder the betrayal and sur- 
render of many precious truths. It was probably on ac- 
count of their holding aloof from joining church that they 
were called Silesian separatists. Zinzendorf posed as 
" Reformer of the Schwenkfelders," and by his course of 
action soon made some surmise that it would be policy for 
them to become church members if they wished to remain 
in peace, although they were not disturbed on account of 
doctrine or action. At Gorlitz the Schwenkfelders at- 
tended the public worship of the pastor Reverend Schaef- 
fer for a time, but after a while dropped out on account 
of the language concerning them used in the pulpit one 

The condition of the religious life of the Schwenkfel- 
ders was probably not as flourishing as might have been 
desired. They were not organized as a body and were thus 
deprived of the advantages of organized and well-directed 
pastoral labor. They were in the habit of thinking for 
themselves and thus did not reconcile themselves readily 
to the well-meant advice and directions of others. Vari- 
ous other things helped to thwart their religious growth. 

28 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

They frequently met, however, in private gatherings at 
which, as well as at their family worship, the sermons of 
their early leaders were read and the hymns sung that the 
fathers used to sing. In 1732 it was reported that in 
Berthelsdorf the Schwenkfelders allowed their children to 
be baptized, but that they could not be brought to become 
members of the church. One of their own leaders said : 
*'I am deeply pained when I see the pitiable decline in 
life and doctrine among our people." Another of their 
leaders said: '*The heart is cold, faint, weary; zeal for 
the truth, spiritless and the resolution for reformation and 
consecration to God wanting." In view of this condition 
of affairs, George Weiss, one of their number, began the 
composition of a series of letters addressed to various 
members in the Schwenkfelder community. These were 
of a doctrinal and devotional nature and were prepared in 
the hope that they might be read, reread, discussed, cir- 
culated and compared with the standards of doctrine. 

While they were thus living their somewhat precarious 
religious life, the time was drawing nigh when, under 
God's providence, another migration was to take place. 
The Jesuits, provoked by their own defeat in their efforts 
at mission work and by the protection afforded these people 
by Count Zinzendorf, had for some time in various ways 
engendered trouble for the Count, the Moravians and the 
Schwenkfelders, and were anxious to capture the game 
that had escaped from them by midnight flights. Ac- 
cordingly when the elector died, to be succeeded by his 
son in 1733, the Jesuits made use of the chance afforded 
by applying to the young ruler for the enforced return of 
the Schwenkfelders to Silesia. The ministers at Dresden 
gave a hint of this to these people and advised them to 
move to some other place. An imperial edict was issued 

An Imperial Edict. 29 

at Dresden, April 4, 1733, addressed to the syndic at 
Bautzen, the superior office of Upper Lusatia, to the ef- 
fect that the concilium abcwidi should be promulgated to 
the Schwenkfelders by Zinzendorf, that they were to go 
singly, and that he must see to it that the decree was carried 
out. Upon this George Weiss was appealed to and con- 
sented to take charge of the religious training and instruc- 
tion of the people. Meetings were held by him on Sunday 
evenings. He read and explained hymns, and at the re- 
quest of the parents catechetical instruction was also started 
in connection with his other labors. After consultation, 
prayer meetings were held, at which reading, singing, 
prayer and oral testimony were engaged in. Space per- 
mits but the mere mention of the fact that the secular 
training of the children was not overlooked, and that some, 
like Christopher Schultz, received careful culture. 

Notice having been served that migration would have to 
take place within a year, the serious question arose where 
to go. The King of Prussia had made offers to them sev- 
eral times before the migration of 1726 to come and settle 
near Berlin with the purpose of establishing linen manu- 
factories, but serious objections had prevented their accep- 
tance. At the time of the ffight they had asked the Men- 
nonites of Holland whether they could perhaps find a place 
in their neighborhood to dwell and earn a living and had 
received an adverse answer. Their friend, Hanish the 
merchant of Gorlitz, had advised them to try to secure, 
through some mutual friend, toleration from the King of 
Poland and refuge on the estates of the treasurer of the 
crown, but fate seemed to be against them. Several had 
made a trip to Hamburg to spy out a place where they 
might dwell together and had failed in their efforts. 
Brandenburg, Isenberg, Weisenberg had been tried in 

30 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

vain. They applied to the Prince of Anhalt-Cothen, to 
be disappointed again. Thus they had often tried, and 
though at times they were almost successful, they knew not 
where to go. 

No place seeming to be in sight in the old world, they 
turned their thoughts across the sea to free America, where 
so man}^ of the down-trodden and oppressed had found 
freedom from the bonds of tyranny. Zinzendorf, who was 
also alarmed at this time, was looking the same way to find 
homes for the people under his care, the Moravians, over 
whom the same fate seemed to hang that had come to the 
Schwenkfelders. His eye rested on Georgia, which had 
just been carved out of the seemingly boundless expanse 
beyond the Atlantic, and which was planned to be a home 
for those fleeing from religious oppression. He proposed 
to them the plan of migrating in a body to Georgia. 

They expressed a willingness akin to an eager desire 
to go there if he could arrange with the king that they 
should have entire liberty of conscience, free land and free 
transportation. In a letter to him they said: *'It is not 
our thought to be great or to try to do great things in the 
world, but rather to seek to be small and to direct our pur- 
poses and settlement according to God's will. We hope 
to have a close connection even in temporal affairs so that 
our confession of faith may be upheld and that such ar- 
rangements, regulations, and conditions may be met as 
will enable us to win our daily bread without becoming a 
burden in a strange country." They were too poor to pay 
their own ship passage and were very solicitous to escape 
impending slavery and dispersion in consequence of being 
compelled to go as redemptioners. Zinzendorf tried to 
meet these conditions and entered into negotiations with 
the English minister in Copenhagen and the German agent 

Migration to Pennsylvania. 31 

of the *' Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia." 
According to Fresenius, Reichel, Hoffman and Schultz, 
these conditions could not be met by Zinzendorf at the 
proper time and thus the Schwenkfelders became free 
from the hand of the count, a result planned by God for 
which they had many reasons for thankfulness. The 
scheme of Zinzendorf not having materialized, thoughts 
turned to Pennsylvania anew, for they had known of the 
place for some time already. A letter, probably written by 
Zinzendorf, shows that they contemplated going to Penn- 
sylvania by way of Hamburg before the close of 1733. 
They secured permission of the crown of England to mi- 
grate to this home of the free and made preparations to 
go, turning into money whatever they could. On the 
thirteenth of April, 1734, but a few days before they began 
to pull their tent-stakes to start on their long trip, a great 
conference was held at which George Weiss read a rigorous 
paper on the past and present condition of the Schwenk- 
felders and promulgated stringent rules and regulations for 
their conduct in various relations after arriving in Penn- 

The actual migration began on Tuesday, April 20, when 
the first family left Berthelsdorf. In small companies 
others followed, bound for Pirna, the place of embarkation 
on the Elbe River. They went to Pirna in small com- 
panies because the order to migrate forbade their going in 
one body, a regulation that gave them no little concern. 
All having arrived by April 28, they took ship and left 
Pirna on the afternoon of the following day, bound for 
Altona. They passed Dresden the same day, Magde- 
burg on the sixth of May, and arrived at Hamburg on the 
sixteenth of May. The next morning at six they disem- 
barked at Altona where they remained eleven days. 

32 The Pennsylvania- German Society, 

They left this place in three vessels on the twenty-eighth 
of May and arrived in Amsterdam, the first two vessels on 
the fourth and the last on the sixth of June. At Haarlem 
the}^ stayed fifteen days, when they left for Rotterdam, 
where they embarked on the ship Saint Andrczu, 
Stedman, Captain, on the twenty-first of June. On the 
twenty-eighth of June they sailed away from Rotterdam, 
bound for Plymouth, England, where they arrived on the 
seventeenth of July. On the twenty-ninth of July they 
sailed from Plymouth and the next da}"^ found themselves 
rocking on the waves of the Atlantic Ocean. On the seven- 
teenth of September they heard the welcome w^ords, 
" Land, Land," from the lips of the watcher at the mast, 
and five days later the booming of cannon announced their 
arrival in Philadelphia. 

On their voyage down the Elbe from Pirna to Altona 
they were crowded on the vessels, but they had the com- 
fort of going ashore several times a day if they chose. At 
Magdeburg they laid in a supply of bread to last until 
they reached Altona, eleven days later. Quite a number 
of the party was sick, but no one died during this part of 
the journey. In Altona, Mennonite brethren, the van 
der Smissens, procured lodging for them and lavishly cared 
for all their wants during their eleven days' stay, and, 
after providing for their trip from Altona to Haarlem, dis- 
missed them without taking any remuneration for their 
kindness and services. The three vessels on which they 
embarked were soon parted on account of storms and did 
not meet again until they came to Haarlem. Considerable 
alarm was felt for the belated vessels and as soon as their 
arrival was announced the Byuschanse brothers, their 
wives, Melchior Schultz, brother of the surveyor David 
Schultze of Pennsylvania, and other friends came out in 



On the Atlantic. 33 

boats to meet them and inquire about the well-being of the 
passengers. They found lodging in quarters provided by 
the Byuschanse brothers and were protected from intrusion 
by a guard placed before the house with instructions to 
admit no one except on business or by permission. The 
same parties made a contract with Captain Stedman for 
conveying the company to Pennsylvania at their own ex- 
pense at the following rates : persons over fifteen years, 
thirty rix-dollars, persons under fifteen, fifteen rix-dollars, 
and children under four, free. They thrust provisions of 
all kinds for the voyage on them and, against their strong 
protest, insisted on doing these deeds of kindness, saying 
even to those who could pay their own passage that they 
should help their poorer brethren on coming to Pennsyl- 
vania. They even gave 224 rix-dollars for a poor-fund 
among them. The Schwenkfelders, before leaving Haar- 
lem, prepared a detailed account of their experiences which 
they sent to their friends in Saxony. 

When they finally embarked on the Saint Andrew they 
found that they had residents of the Palatinate as fellow- 
emigrants, thus swelling the number to three hundred. 
The voyage across the Atlantic must have been wearisome 
and distressing. At one time a calm would befall them 
so that the sails would hang motionless and the rudder 
was tied. At other times contrary winds took them out 
of their course. Storms, accompanied by lightning, over- 
took them, waves dashed over the vessel even up into 
the sails, the timbers creaked, the companion-ways and 
hatches were closed tight, passengers almost stifled in the 
hold were tossed about unable to sit or lie. The hot winds 
from the south and southwest oppressed them. Even their 
bedding was drenched by the waters of the sea that found 
its way through the hatches. Their food, consisting of stale 


The Pennsylvania- German Society, 

bread, beef, rice, syrup, pork, peas, groats and dried cod- 
fish, became unpalatable and the drinking water positively- 
nauseating. Nor did death leave them undisturbed ; nine 
times did they see their own weighted with sand or tied 
to a board carried to the edge of the vessel, gently lifted 
over the side and consigned to the briny deep. Who 
would not have felt like singing with them on such occa- 
sions : Ach ivie elend ist unsere Zeit. What a pleasure 
it must have been to see their friend George Schultz — in 
America since 1731 — coming over the side of the vessel 
on their day of arrival, bringing with him an abundance 
of apples and palatable beer. It is pleasant to note these 
words in the Reise Beschreibting by Christopher Schultz : 
" We had a very good captain who strictly observed the 
articles of contract, and very good sailors who showed 
great patience with us." Though they endured many 
hardships they fared better than many other immigrants. 


The Settlement in Pennsylvania. 

ENNSYLVANIA'S free soil having 
finally been reached, the first duty of 
immigrants was to proceed to the 
proper officers and declare their allegi- 
ance to the King of England and their 
fidelity to the province. Accordingly 
the males of these newly-arrived 
Schwenkfelders over sixteen years of 
age went early on the morning of Sep- 
tember 23 to the Court House to meet 
such obligation. The minutes of the Provincial Council 
make this reference to the event : "At the Court House 
of Philadelphia, September the 12th (Old Style) 1734. 
Present : The Honorable, the Lieutenant Governor, The 
Mayor of the City and others of the Magistracy. Eighty- 
nine Palatines who, with their families making in all two 
Hundred and sixty one Persons, were imported here in the 
Ship Saint Andrew, John Stedman, Master, from Rotter- 
dam but last from Plymouth as by clearance from thence, 
this day took and subscribed the effect of the government 
oaths and also the Declaration prescribed by the Order of 
Council of the 21st of September, 1727." 

The declaration referred to reads as follows: "We 
Subscribers, Natives and late Inhabitants of the Palatinate 


36 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

upon the Rhine and places adjacent, having transported 
ourselves and families into this Province of Pennsylvania, 
a Colony subject to the crown of Great Britain in hopes 
and expectation of finding a retreat and peaceable settle- 
ment therein, do solemnly promise and engage that we 
will be faithful and bear true allegiance to his MAJESTY 
KING GEORGE THE SECOND and his successors, 
Kings of Great Britain and will be faithful to the Proprietor 
of this Province ; And that we will demean ourselves 
peaceably to all His Majesties subjects and strictly observe 
and conform to the laws of England and of this Province, 
to the utmost of our power and best of our understanding." 

Christopher Schultz says that they could not take the 
prescribed oath on account of scruples of conscience, that 
they were quite willingly excused from this and that they 
pledged their allegiance by affirmation or mit einetn Hand- 

On the day following, September 24, a day of thanks- 
giving was observed, their pastor, George Weiss taking 
the lead. This was the origin of Memorial Day observed 
each year ever since. Where this service was held does 
not appear to be recorded. The Court House then stood at 
the present Second and Market Streets. They may have 
met in the Friends' Meeting House close by, in one of the 
other churches or perchance in the woods only a short 
distance above Market Street. Philadelphia, then only 
fifty years old, had perhaps 13,000 inhabitants with farms, 
fields and woods reaching practically down as far as the 
present Vine Street, most of the 1,500 houses being south of 
High Street as Market was then called. Concerning this 
day of prayer, or Geddchtniss-Tag as it is commonly 
called, Hon. S. W. Pennypacker well says : " There were 
many sects which were driven to America by religious 

Commemoration of Arrival. 37 

persecutions, but of them all the Schwenkfelders are the 
only one which established and since steadily maintained 
a Memorial day to commemorate its deliverance and give 
thanks to the Lord for it. To George Weiss belongs an 
honor which cannot be accorded to John Robinson, Wil- 
liam Penn, or George Calvert. The beautiful example set 
by German was followed neither by Pilgrim or Quaker." 
Here was a handful of poor and despised immigrants, 
providentially saved from years of service as redemptioners 
to pay their ship-passage by the charitable hearts in Hol- 
land that aided them, freed but a day from the thralldom 
of centuries of cruel religious oppression, unaccustomed 
to the art of church government or untrammeled public 
divine services, firmly convinced that it was their duty to 
maintain in their thinking and living the principles of civil 
and religious liberty. Behind them was the deep sea made 
memorable by a tedious voyage in deep sorrow and grief ; 
beyond the sea was the fatherland whose tale of ten score 
years of cruelty was ineradicably engraved on memory's 
tablet ; before them an unknown country filled with fabled 
wild beasts and cruel savages without a place of their own 
on which to rest their weary heads. Their valiant endur- 
ance in grievous trials is an undoubted evidence that on 
the altars of their hearts the sacred fires of devotion to 
their God w^ere burning brightly and that in spite of stifling 
persecution their faith in the mercy and goodness of their 
Saviour had not wavered. Reverend C. Z. Weiser, in his 
paper on Caster Schzvenkfeld and the Schwenkfelders, 
says : *' I have often, when looking at the Landing of the 
Pilgrims^ asked myself, why some one of our Pennsyl- 
vania artists had not long ago taken the Landing of the 
Schzuenkf elders under his pencil. Such a picture would 
help to perpetuate an historical event which transpired 

38 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

within the career and limits of Pennsylvania, which ought 
not to be forgotten and over which any of the New Eng- 
land States would grow proud." 

Before the company breaks and scatters it may be well 
to take a hasty glance at them. According to the list 
endorsed by John Stedman, the Captain of the Saint An- 
drexv there are in the company 81 males and 83 females, 
or about 40 families of whom a dozen or more have chil- 
dren by their side. Tobias Hartranft brought five chil- 
dren ; Christopher Schubert, three ; Reverend Balzer Hoff- 
man, three ; George Dresher, three ; Christopher Kriebel, 
four; Widower David Yeakel, six ; Widow ReginaYeakel, 
five ; Widow Susanna Schultz, four ; Widow Susanna 
Wiegner, three. Other families have one or two chil- 
dren. There are also orphans, as for instance the three 
Schultz brothers. The more common family names are : 
Anders, Dresher, Hartranft, Heydrick, Hoffman, Kriebel, 
Meschter, Neuman, Reinwald, Schultz, Yeakel. Many 
of the children are but babes who have not yet learned to 
coo or to lisp the simple call to father or mother. In age, 
the company ranges from the helpless babe Christopher 
Meschter, less than four months old, to the aged Ursula 
Hoffman, past 71. Of the number, four have come across 
the mighty deep to make their last resting place in some 
forgotten city of the dead within the present limits of 
Philadelphia ere two weeks have sped away. Of the 
young orphans in the company, Christopher Yeakel lived 
until 1810, dying at the age of 91 ; Susanna Yeakel, until 
1812, as Mrs. Abraham Wiegner, dying at the age of 83, 
and Rosina Yeakel, until 1820, as Mrs. Casper Seipt, 
dying at the age of 90. 

They have in their midst a Balzer Hoffman who has 
stood before Charles VI., and through long and weary 

Christopher Weigner. 39 

years pleaded for toleration for his brethren in the faith, 
and who has made a reputation for himself as a prolific 
religious writer ; a George Weiss who has for years de- 
voted himself to the spiritual interests of the flock, and is 
their chosen pastor to watch over their spiritual welfare 
in their struggles for a livelihood, and who also has 
won fame as a writer, an austere and fearless man of God ; 
a Dr. Melchior Heebner, past 65, known as a successful 
practitioner, a Restorationist, a hearty admirer of the 
English visionary, Jane Leade, an outspoken enemy of 
false spirituality, a lover of music and poetry, a man who 
strongly opposed the mission of Hoffman to Vienna as a 
worship of the beast and a dependence on money and the 
aid of men ; a Christopher Wiegner, who has been 
writing a diary of his spiritual experiences since the days 
of his childhood, a young man intimately acquainted with 
Spangenberg, Zinzendorf and many of the leading men 
among the Moravians, a young man whose father, Adam 
Wiegner, had served as secretary to the Schwenkfelders in 
their quest for a place of refuge and who had pleaded 
so strongly with the Mennonites to try to dissuade the 
Schwenkfelders from going to Pennsylvania ; a Christo- 
pher Schultz, who as a youth of sixteen had written the 
glowing account of their voyage just ended, who had 
studied his Latin, Greek and Hebrew and gave promise of 
an illustrious future. In passing it will be in place to note 
that the immigration by Schwenkfelders began in 1731 
with George Schultz, and extended to 1737. 

It will be of interest to watch these people in imagina- 
tion as they seek to found homes for themselves. George 
Schultz and his two sons David and George who like 
Joshua and Caleb had spied out the land, gave counsel 
and advice. Seemingly the father had acquired land 

4© The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

prior to this in Goshenhoppen and probably knew some 
of the residents of the section. The son, George, after- 
wards known as " George Schultz of Philadelphia, 
Merchant," was acquainted with the city and its ways. 
These with the others that had come with them in 1733 
were regarded worthy of mention by the tourist V. Beek, 
June 6, 1734, when among the different sects of Pennsyl- 
vania he mentioned the " Schwenkfelders." The first 
thought was to find temporary quarters until they could 
look around for permanent homes. David Seipt and 
family seem to have stayed in the city for awhile ; some 
rented houses in Germantown or farther north ; some were 
hired to people of the neighborhoods as they passed on up 
towards the Goshenhoppen valley near the present East 
Greenville. George Bonisch relates that early in Novem- 
ber George Schultz asked him to come to his place in 
Goshenhoppen to help on his house as mason, and that he 
went there and worked for some time. Reverend Bathasar 
Hoffman served as his Handlanger (attendant). During 
his eight weeks' stay he attended services on Sunday con- 
ducted by his learned helper of the week. Quite a number 
of Schwenkfelders must therefore have been in Upper 
Hanover by November, 1734, where they probably lived 
as hired people or as renters in houses erected by others 
before they came. 

Having found shelter and means of support for the first 
winter, they toiled and looked around for places to estab- 
lish themselves permanently. They had planned and 
labored hard — Christopher Wiegner alone travelling hun- 
dreds of miles — to secure a large tract of contiguous 
land in order that they might live close together, but 
nowhere could they find a suitable place. They tried 
to buy the Casper Wistar tract of over 1,000 acres in 

Purchase of Land. 41 

Lower Salford but found that it would not suit because it 
was already occupied in part. They made an offer of 
1,000 pistoles for 2,000 acres of the Perkasie Manor lying 
north of the present Chalfont in Bucks County, an offer 
which Logan said was the best he had known to be made 
for land since he knew the province. Thomas Penn pro- 
posed to sell them 2,500 acres of the said manor land, but 
for some reason no sale was made. Christopher Wiegner 
relates that when he and others went to view the said land 
the residents would not show the boundary lines and con- 
ducted them a whole day over poor land. On inquiry, 
Wiegner learned that this was done because the people 
did not wish them to settle there. They also tried to buy 
2,000 acres in '*Falckner Schwam." Large unexplored 
and unsettled tracts were indeed available but they chose 
to make their homes in the inhabited sections and thus — 
unwittingly — avoided the extreme hardships of the frontier 
settlers and the barbaric cruelty of the revengeful Indian. 
Being prevented from establishing a distinct Schwenk- 
felder community, they concluded to buy wherever the 
conditions seemed most favorable. According to Christo- 
pher Wiegner they reached this decision March 21, 1735. 
A few of these purchases will be noted. In March, 
Christopher Kriebel, Balzer Yeakel, father of George, 
Casper and George Heydrich, and George and Balzer 
Hoffman, severally bought lands aggregating over 500 
acres situated in the present Lower Salford Township, near 
the Schwenkfelder Meeting House. In May, the brothers 
Melchior and Casper Kriebel bought respectively 189 and 
130 acres in the neighborhood of the present Towamencin 
Meeting House. A little later Christopher Wiegner bought 
of Cadwallader Evans 150 acres adjoining the Kriebel 
tracts and shortly after moved there with his sister and 

42 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

mother to establish a home that became noted in its day as 
the meeting place of the " Associated Brethren of the 
Shippack," of which more will be said later on. In June, 
Balzer Heydrich bought of John Jacob Fauth lOO acres in 
Falckner Swamp, now known as Frederick Township in 
part, not far from Stetler's store. Doctor Melchior Heeb- 
ner and his son Hans settled close by, the same year. In 
August, George Dresher and David Seibt bought in part- 
nership 134 acres and Christopher Reinwald 59 acres in 
Towamencin, not far from where Wiegner and the Kriebels 
had settled. The three Schultz brothers, Melchior, George 
and Christopher, settled in Goshenhoppen the same year, 
three miles away from their uncle George Schultz, Sr. 
Two miles farther north Melchior Wiegner and David 
Meschter located themselves on 100 acres, and where Levi 
Krauss now lives Balzer Krauss settled on the Shoemaker 
tract of 200 acres. David Heebner went into Oley and 
rented a farm, to return later and buy land in Falckner 
Swamp. Abraham, Balzer and Hans Heinrich, sons of 
David Yeakel and Gregorius Schultz, a son-in-law, wended 
their way past the sources of the Perkiomen over the hills 
into the Macungie valley, where they established homes 
and acquired considerable land. A 500-acre tract belong- 
ing to Casper Wistar, the button maker of Philadelphia, 
was rented by them, upon which they placed Hans Hein- 
rich and another man for the raising of horses. Abraham 
Yeakel and Gregorius Schultz pushed a few miles far- 
ther into the woods and secured land that was afterwards 
sold to the ancestor of the Fogels living in Fogelsville. 
While these Yeakel boys were locating in Lehigh, a 
brother Casper bought land in Germantown, with the idea 
of erecting a house and serving the community as black- 

Purchase oj Land. 43 

In January, 1736, George Heebner entered into part- 
nership with Henry Antes, of Frederick Township. This 
firm purchased 28 acres of land and erected a mill em- 
ploying two sets of stone, the first mill of the community. 
This mill was situated where the dam of the present Grubb 
mill is located. It was at the house of George Heebner 
where the second of the Zinzendorf conferences was held 
a few 3^ears later. 

In April George Schultz obtained a grant for 150 acres 
of land in Goshenhoppen west of the present East Green- 
ville, which was transferred to the three Schultz brothers, 
George, Melchior and Christopher, and then, or possibly 
the summer before, they (according to tradition) began to 
build the first two-story house between the Skippack and the 
Blue Mountains. 

In 1737, in March, Abraham Beyer, who had landed 
with his family in Philadelphia the previous October, bought 
94 acres of land near the present Worcester Meeting 
House, to be joined later by Doctor Abraham Wagner who, 
also acquired land in the neighborhood. 

In 1738, Dr. Melchior Heebner, father of George, died 
and w^as buried in Frederick Township, on his own land, 
according to the Genealogical Record, which he had ac- 
quired some time previous. Hans Heebner, a son, was one 
of the neighbors of Dr. Heebner and had acquired prior to 
this 94 acres. 

In 1740, Melchior Wiegner acquired 75 acres of land in 
the lower part of Hereford Township and Christopher 
Krauss over 100 acres in the Hosensack valley along the 
creek issuing from the Powder Valley. In 1741 David 
Meschter acquired by patent 100 acres in Hereford Town- 
ship. In 1743, Christopher Yeakel built the log cabin at 
the foot of Chestnut Hill known to this day as the " Yeakel 

44 l^he Pennsylvania- German Society. 

cottage." In 1744 David Seipt bought 150 acres of John 
Benezet in the neighborhood where Casper Kriebel had 

In 1746, conveyances of property took place, by which the 
three Schultz brothers dissolved partnership. George re- 
mained at the old homestead, Melchior established himself 

Oe/rt/^fi. ^^^7z> ec^^^ /ci/e^, i^rSt^rmfi^J 

qJ^ (^£ 

where Horatio K. Schultz now lives and Christopher moved 
to where a descendant, Jeremiah K. Schultz, lives, not 
far from the Washington Schwenkfelder Meeting House. 
In 1749 David Schultz bought 180 acres in Goshen- 
hoppen located near East Greenville. It was on this 
farm that Mrs. Schultz was cruelly murdered in June, 
1750. We present herewith a fac-simile of the entry made 
by Schultz in his Almanac diary at the time of the murder : 

Purchase of Land. 45 

In 1749 ^ patent was granted to Balthasar Krauss for 
part of the Shoemaker tract near the present Kraussdale 
Schwenkfelder Meeting House. In November, 175 1, Mel- 
chior Schultz bought 332 acres along the Perkiomen, south 
of Pennsburgdown stream from the Hillegass mill property. 
Later in the same year, Christopher Newman bought of 
David Williams 225 acres in the vicinity of the present West 
Point. In 1754 Christopher Wagner bought 54 acres in 
Worcester. In 1757, Balzer Yeakel, of Macungie bought 
of Micheal Schell in the Hosensack valley 120 acres. In 
November 1761 Gregorius Schultz of Macungie bought of 
Abraham Yeakel 125 acres in Upper Hanover, and in De- 
cember Hans Heinrich Yeakel, the third and last of the 
Schwenkfelders who had settled beyond the present Ma- 
cungie, bought the Hamilton tract of 500 acres and the usual 
allowance, the garden of the Hosensack valley which he later 
divided and sold to his four sons. In March, 1762, Christ- 
opher Heebner bought of Frederick Cressman, 122 acres 
in Norriton Township and a few weeks later Christopher 
Dresher bought of John Roberts 129 acres in Towamencin. 
In 1765 George Kriebel bought of Samuel Mechling 302 
acres in Lower Milford, then Northampton County, near 
the present so-called Kraussdale. Later in the year, 
David Heebner sold his 200 acres in Frederick Township 
and moved to Worcester. A few years later George 
Heebner, of Frederick Township, sold his farms of over 175 
acres to Reverend John Philip Leidich and moved to 
Chestnut Hill. These are some of the land transactions 
and will afford a view of the acquisition of real estate. 

Through the Heintze correspondence, of which more 
will be said later, a request was made that the Schwenk- 
felders should let the friends in Germany know how and 
where they dwelt. In compliance with this request, sur- 


The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

Early Settlers. ^y 

veyor David Schultze made a map of the places of residence 
which was sent with explanatory matter to Germany, June, 
1767. When Ober-Lehrer Friedrich Schneider a century 
later was pursuing his studies in Schwenkfeld history he 
discovered this map and explanatory matter in the library 
of Pastor Nitschke of Harpersdorf. He made a copy 
which in due time came into the hands of the Berlin 
Library. A tracing of this copy was made under the 
direction of Dr. Hartranft, editor of the Corpus Schwcnk- 
feldianoriim. A copy of said tracing is given herewith. 
The numbers on the map were explained in the letter 
that accompanied the map. The list is herewith reproduced 
in the spelling as given in the Hartranft copy on the left 
hand side and on the right hand side the places are identi- 
fied by reference to present owners or tenants. 

Berks County^ Hereford: 

1. Melchior Schulz. Horatio K. Schultz. 

2. David Meschter. Leon Fetterman. 

3. George Wiegner. Solomon Schmoyer. 

Melchior Wiegners 

4. Barbara Jackelinn Joseph Yeakel. 

5. Christian (?) Schulz. Jeremiah K. Schultz. 

6. Gregorius Meschter. Not identified. 

Nordhamton County^ Milford Township: 

7. Balthasar Jackel, Sohn. Benjamin Weiss. 

8. Hans Jiickel, Vater. Daniel Yeakel. 

9. George Jackel, Sohn. Nathaniel Hiestand. 

10. Jeremias Jackel, Sohn. Nathan Schultz. 

11. Balthasar Kraus. Levi Krauss. 

12. George Kriebel. Abraham Brey. 
Casper Kriebels Sohn. 


The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

Folgende sind alle Einwohner von Philadelphia county 
in Coschehoppe oder Oberhannover (translation) : The fol- 
lowing are all residents of Philadelphia county in Goshen- 
hoppen or Upper Hanover. 

13. Georg Schulz, senior. 

14. Georg Schultz, senior 


15. Gregor Schulz. 

16. Christoph Krause. 

17. George Wiegner. 

18. Christoph Jackel. 

19. David Schulz. 

20. Seines Bruder. 
Melchiors Wittwe. 

21. George Hiibner. 

E. H. Schultz, Palm. 

Abraham Schultz. 
Rufus Shuler. 
John C. Hancock Ice Co. 
Late Daniel Althouse. 
Henry R. Seibert. 
Henry D. Snyder. 
John Gerhard. 

Near Stetler's Store. 

(Soweit dererste Bezirk.) 
In Schippach und Umgegend vvohnen ; (translation) : 
Thus far the first district ; in Skippack and vicinity there 
dwell : 

1. Christoph Kriebel. 

2. George Kriebel. 
George Heidrich. 
Christoph Hoffmann. 
Christoph Wiegner. 

6. Balthasar Jackel. 

7. Hans Jackel. 

8. Abraham Heidrich. 
Christoph Drescher. 
Christoph Reinwald. 
George Anders. 
Abraham Kriebel (sein 

Vater Casper). 
13. Abraham Wiegner. 




David M. Cassel. 
Elias Landis. 
John Halteman. 
Henry Derstine Estate. 
Isaac K. Kriebel. 
Not identified. 
Peter Lewis. 
Not identified. 
Israel Heckler. 
Not identified. 
Allen K. Kriebel. 
Abraham Kriebel. 

Not identified. 

U^f^Jktf.^ k«'K^ 

Early Settlers. 











Melchior Moschter. Not identified. 

Casper Seibt. Sam Metz. 

Hans Christoph Hiibner. William Freed. 

Christoph Wagner. 
David Hiibner. 

Andreas Beer. 

20. Abraham Anders, weil- 

and Abrah. Wagner. 

21. Christoph Hiibner. 

22. Abraham Jackel. 

23. Melchior Kriebel. 

H. H. Heebner. 

Near Worcester (Schwenk- 

felder meeting house). 
Late Michael Grater, now 

Ellwood Anders. 
Ellwood Anders. 

Wayne Heebner. 

Near Worcester (Schwenk- 

felder meeting house). 
Abraham H. Kriebel, " Rit- 

tenhouse farm." 
Not identified. 
Jacob Heebner (?). 

Ed Wahn. 

Late Benjamin Wilson. 

David Kriebel der Sohn. 
David Neumann sein 

Valer Christoph. 
Heinrich Schneider 

(Tochtermann des 
Melchior Wagner (von 
Christopher Schubert dwelt in Germantown and Chris- 
topher Yeakel and David Schubert at Chestnut Hill. 

It would be interesting to trace the conveyances of land 
more in detail but space will not permit. In many cases 
the properties were transmitted from father to son or son- 
in-law ; in some cases the larger tracts were subdivided to 
afford means of subsistence to the different members of the 
family ; adjoining farms were occasionally acquired or 
new settlements started more or less removed from the 
original centers. In very few cases did the homes pass 


50 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

into the hands of others through the financial failure or 
embarrassment of the owners. In a considerable number 
of cases the properties have remained in the hands of the 
freimdschafft that originally acquired them to the pres- 
ent day. In each district in which they settled they found 
resident and non-resident land-holders who were holding 
the property to profit by the rise in values. The fact must 
not be overlooked that not all the Schwenkfelders were 
land-holders, that some were renters, or day-laborers or 
followed some particular trade. 

The toil, trial and triumph of the early times form an 
interesting study to which scarcely more than a reference 
may be made. Isaac Schultz says in substance: "All 
the people trusted in the care and protection of the 
Highest as they located themselves and felt that in plod- 
ding for their daily bread in the sweat of their brows they 
would receive from Him the needed strength, wisdom and 
courage. They began at the lowest round of the ladder, to 
clear the land and render it tillable, and huts and houses 
were put up where there were none. Each by his own 
industry gave evidence of a hope of better times and better 
conditions in life. There was scarcely any relief from the 
toil ; the burden and heat of many a day had to be borne. 
The bushes and wild undergrowth were cut, grubbed and 
uprooted. The women helped to gather and burn the 
underbrush, to clear a patch for gardening or for raising 
flax. Plows, even the primitive plows with wooden mould- 
boards were scarcely known, the grubbing-hoe being used 
instead. As harrows, bundles of branches were dragged 
over the virgin soil but slightly disturbed by the plying of 
the hoe. The uncovered seed was devoured by wild doves 
and turkeys in which the forests abounded. The growing 
grain was relished by the deer which often gave their lives 

The Founding of a Home. 51 

as a sacrifice for their boldness in making free use of the 
settlers' crops, and thus became food and raiment for the 
white man." The women knew how to spin and they did 
spin. At first the spinning was not done with the familiar 
spinning wheel with treadle and distaff, but with a simple 
piece of wood that might easily be mistaken by the un- 
informed for a modern penholder ornamented with a ring 
near the one end. For the first few years they had no 
wool to spin because they could not properly care for the 
sheep. As soon as possible, however, sheep, horses and 
cattle were secured, bells were hung around their necks 
and they were turned loose and left to care for themselves 
in the primeval forest. Tradition says that before Abra- 
ham Moyer erected his mill on the Perkiomen where Lei- 
bert's mill now is below Palm, the people often ground their 
grain to meal by crushing it on stones or stumps of trees and 
removing the coarser and foreign elements by the use of 
sieves. Orchards were planted and distilleries were erected 
to change the luscious apple into the mischievous applejack. 

The three Schultz brothers erected the first two-story 
dwelling house in the settlement. Melchior Neuman 
was the carpenter. Because they had no saw-mill, they 
were obliged to saw logs into boards by hand. They 
rolled the logs on a frame and thus devised a rude saw- 
mill of their own, human muscle above and below the log 
furnishing the motive power. Christopher Krauss also 
joined them about this time. They toiled at the loom 
as weavers and won fame by their fine linen. They 
manufactured looms, various household articles, wagon- 
wheels out of three-inch planks, horse collars out of plaited 
straw and traces for the harness out of hemp. 

They tilled the ground. The crops which they did not 
need together with their finest grades of linen, some of 

52 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

which they sold to the governor of the Province at eight 
shillings per yard, were taken to market. 

Balzer Anders of Towamencin and George Heydrich of 
Salford and David Meschter of Hereford made and re- 
paired shoes. Christopher Yeakel and David Schubert 
were coopers and plied their craft at Chestnut Hill. Abra- 
ham Yeakel of Worcester, and Christopher Reinwald of 
Towamencin were known as weavers and David Rein- 
wald, the son of Christopher, living in Douglass as turner. 
George Weiss was a weaver and for a time kept three looms 
going and was financially successful, often being called 
upon to weave for others on account of the good quality of 
the product of his looms. He was an honest man and made 
honest linen. Balzer Hoffman made his spinning wheel 
hum practically to the end of his eventful life. David 
Schultz, the surveyor, served his day and generation as 
surveyor and general scrivener, and as such was known 
favorably far and wide. Christopher Schultz, of Here- 
ford, George Kriebel, of Lower Milford, and Melchior 
Wagner, of Worcester, also served their neighborhoods as 
scriveners. David Wagener made his way into North- 
hampton County and established himself along the Bush- 
kill, where he grew to be a man of means and became the 
progenitor of numerous descendants in Easton and else- 

The Schwenkfelders occasionally became non-resident 
land-holders to invest their savings and thus to profit by 
the prospective rise in values. In case of sickness, house- 
hold remedies were resorted to and the industrious house- 
wife brought into requisition the copious collection of rem- 
edies in her well-filled bag of medicinal herbs. Should 
professional services be needed, their faithful friends. Dr. 
George DeBenneville, the Universalist, of Oley, later of 

A Reniarhahle Slate Pa^er. 53 

Bristol, and Dr. Abraham Wagner, of Worcester, were 
called upon. Accidents and misfortunes, pain, sickness- 
and death that are wont to befall man were their lot as 
well, but of these there is no occasion for speaking. They 
toiled and triumphed in their toil. Many a father of a 
family could say with Jacob of old: " I am not worthy 
of the least of thy mercies, and of all thy truth which 
thou hast showed unto thy servant ; for with my staff I 
passed over this Jordan and now I am become two bands. '^ 

They had trusted their divine Saviour, and in obedience 
to His sweet will, left their all for righteousness' sake and 
their Lord rewarded them openly in this present life. They 
had a practical realization of the words of the master : 
*' Every one that hath forsaken houses or brethren, or 
sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, 
for my name's sake shall receive a hundred-fold." 

Thus they toiled, and in the sweat of their brow be- 
came co-workers with God in His answering their prayer : 
" Give us this day our daily bread." In the midst of their 
struggles, probably some time during 1742, the following 
remarkable state-paper was brought to their attention, but 
though they were thus highly flattered and honored by 
Frederick the Great, they merely acknowledged the invi- 
tation with thanks and to a man clung to their newly 
adopted country that they had come to love so well. 

" Edict to provide for the reestablishment of the so-called 
Schwenkfelders in Silesia and other provinces of his Royal 
Majesty; de dato Selowitz the 8 of March, 1742. 

" We, Frederick, by the grace of God, King of Prussia, 
Margrave of Brandenburg, Arch Chamberlain, and elec- 
tor of the Holy Roman Empire, etc., etc. 

*' Be it known to all to whom these presents may come; 
Whereas, we do hold nothing to be so contrary to Nature, 

54 T^^^ Pennsylvania- German Society. 

Reason and Principles of the Christian Religion as the 
forcing of the subjects' consciences and persecuting them 
about any erroneous doctrines which do not concern the 
fundamental principles of the Christian Religion. We 
have, therefore, most graciously resolved that the so-called 
Schwenkfelders, who were exiled through an imprudent 
zeal for Religion, to the irreparable damage of commerce 
and of the country be recalled into our Sovereign Duchy 
of Lower Silesia. We have, therefore, thought fit by these 
presents to assure all those who possess the said doctrine, 
upon our Royal word that they shall and may return 
safely not only into our Sovereign Duchy of Lower Sile- 
sia, but also into all our provinces, peaceably to live and 
trade there, since we not only do receive them into our 
special protection, but also will give them all necessary 
supplies for the promotion of their commerce. And all 
those who several years ago were deprived of their habita- 
tions and estates in our country of Silesia, shall be rein- 
stated without any conpensation in case those estates are 
not paid for by the new possessors. Such as will settle in 
our villages shall have farms assigned to them, and care 
shall be taken to provide them employment and those who 
choose to live in towns shall, besides several ordinary 
Free years, have places assigned them gratis for the 
building of their houses for which purposes they need only 
apply to our Military and Domainen Chambers. 

"We do therefore command our Superior Colleges of 
Justice and Finance, as well as all mediate Princes, Lords, 
Magistrates, etc., carefully to observe the same. 

" In witness whereof we have signed this present edict 
with our own hand, and caused our royal seal to be affixed. 

*' Done at Selowitz, March 8th, 1742. 
*< L. S. V Cocceji. "Frederick, 

" per C. von Munchon." 


Efforts at Church Organization, 1734-1782. 

N attempting to form a conception of the 
religious life among the Schwenkfelders 
prior to the organization of 1782, the 
people, their leaders, their places of resi- 
dence and the general religious surround- 
ings must be taken into account. 

The situation of the people themselves, 
considered with respect to organized re- 
ligious life, was pitiable. They had 
been robbed of house and home, hence were poor and a 
fierce struggle for daily food and raiment with consequent 
tendency to worldliness followed ; they had been deprived 
of Christian fellowship, hence they could not look to the 
old world for aid as others could and would. Prior to 
1734 they had been deprived of religious liberty, hence 
they had not profited by the benefits of a religious organi- 
zation. They were accorded no standing by the dominant 
religious forces, hence they probably often felt as Dr. 
Abraham Wagner expressed himself to Reverend Muhlen- 
berg : "It would be no wonder if you felt an aversion 
from me since I bear or must bear a despised, heretical 


56 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

name." Reverend Balzer Hoffman wrote: "When they 
landed there was great disorder respecting homes and 
means of winning a livelihood. The people lost concern 
for the faith for which they had suffered and lapsed into 
lukewarmness and worldliness. The whole week was 
spent in a struggle for a living. Sunday meant laziness, 
inactivity and a light-hearted state of mind." During the 
first winter, the minds of all must have been in a state of 
suspense on account of their future homes and this also 
probably augmented the spiritual unrest. After homes had 
been acquired and means of subsistence found, the charge 
of their pastor George Weiss extended from Germantown, 
possibly Philadelphia through Gwynedd, Towamencin, 
Lower Salford, Upper Hanover, Hereford, Upper Milford 
to Macungie in Lehigh County with spurs at Falckner 
Swamp — now Frederick — and at Worcester. 

George Weiss was a remarkable man.^ At the age of 
thirty-three he was chosen to write the Confession of Faith 
of the Schwenkfelders and to answer the questions of the 
Jesuit missionaries. In 1733 he was called upon to take 
charge of the religious training of the young, probably 
after notice had been served that in a year's time migration 
would be enforced. In April, 1734, he wrote his Kurtzes 
Gutachten in which he discussed the history of the 
Schwenkfelders and the forming of a religious organiza- 
tion or Gemeinde. He also drew up stringent regulations 
for the intending emigrants concerning Sunday observance, 
holidays, marriage, the sacraments, prayer for children, 
conduct of the daily life, etc., etc. He was a practical 
apostle of the strenuous life, as is shown, for example, by 
having pangs of conscience at his own worldliness in 
operating three weaver's looms at one time. The worldli- 

^ The term " Reverend '- is omitted in conformity with early custom. 



Religious Conditions. 57 

ness of the people so vexed his righteous soul that his 
heart poured itself out in tears. He strove, as he said, to 
so live that no one could take offence at any word or work of 
his. His conduct, bearing and general aspect were unusu- 
ally plain and simple. His whole being was charged with a 
holy zeal for true righteousness which he as a minister mani- 
fested without abatement unto the time of his death in 1740. 

The general religious condition of the community is thus 
described by Muhlenberg in a letter of the period : " Athe- 
ists, Deists and Naturalists are to be found everywhere ; in 
short, there is no sect in the world which has not followers 
here. You meet with persons from almost every nation in 
the world. The young people have grown up without in- 
struction and without knowledge of religion and are turn- 
ing into heathenism." 

Beside this general inclination to a low religious life in the 
community which tended to counteract the labors of Weiss, 
there were divergent tendencies among the Schwenkfelders 
themselves. Dr. Abraham Wagner, of Worcester, wanted 
to read and did read non-Schwenkfelder books and prob- 
ably affected the Beyers living close by and related. Dr. 
Melchior Hiibner living in Frederick, was an adherent of 
the views of Jacob Boehme, and probably influenced those 
with whom he came into contact. In Goshenhoppen, Mel- 
chior and David and their father, George Schultz, and 
Melchior Wiegner read Jacob Boehme and Jane Leade. 
Christopher Wiegner, of Towamencin, also an admirer of 
Boehme, harbored the envoys of the Moravians, and in 
particular Spangenberg. The "Associated Brethren of 
theSkippack" met at his house and vexed the souls of 
earnest Schwenkfelders. 

Surrounded thus and hampered by adverse circum- 
stances, George Weiss, recognized as pastor, went to 

58 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

work, but he soon learned that the people could not and 
would not devote as much time to his ministrations as he 
desired, and in consequence experienced during 1735 bitter 
grief, dejection and discouragement. He visited various 
families during the summer, staying several weeks at one 
place, teaching the children and exercising them in cate- 
chetical questions. Some expository letters were written, 
but there were practically no public religious services and 
altogether there was not much activity. Soon after this 
Wiegner wrote: "My heart is often so filled with pain 
and sorrow in the meetings of the Schwenkfelders at their 
poor souls, that I cannot suppress my tears, though I speak 
not a word the whole time." Of Weiss he wrote : " Since 
we are in this country he shows such zeal and earnestness 
that one scarcely recognizes the earlier Weiss in him." 

The contemplated marriage of two Schwenkfelders — 
presumably Balthasar Krauss and Susanna Hoffman — 
raised the question of organization. The groom came to 
Weiss and expressed the wish to have the ceremony per- 
formed by one of their own number. The wish was taken 
into consideration and as a consequence a letter was written 
in November, 1735, in which it was suggested to select a 
minister ( Vorsteher) and two deacons [Aeltesten). On 
November 9, nine Schwenkfelders met and elected George 
Weiss as minister and B. H. and D. S. as deacons (Balzer 
Hoffman and David Seibt, in all probability), to whom 
they promised allegiance. A contract or agreement was 
drawn up and signed by the minister, the deacons and the 
people. This was done not as an act of union as a church, 
but as a means of knowing on whom the minister might 

Upon this Weiss assumed charge of the religious ser- 
vices and went faithfully and earnestly to work. Trouble 

Idolatry and Calf Worship. 59 

soon beset him, however. Christopher Wiegner relates 
that in January, 1736, Weiss called upon him and that an 
earnest discussion arose concerning a letter which Wiegner 
had written. On parting Wiegner finally promised to at- 
tend the services again. On the following fourth of April 
Spangenberg arrived at Wiegner's home, and thus added 
another factor to the religious problem. About June twen- 
tieth Wiegner made record in his diary that Weiss spoke to 
them and charged them to let the Schwenkfelders alone, 
saying that they could and would not agree, and that it 
would be useless to try to make Moravians of them. 

Without entering into further details it may be in place 
to quote the following words extracted from a general 
letter by Weiss, dated December 15, 1737 : '* After having 
tried for a considerable time the existing plan, * * * I am 
compelled in protection of my own conscience to avail my- 
self of another method to prevent if possible with respect 
to myself a Gideonitish idolatry or a Jereoboamitish calf- 
worship. If you desire to use it for such purpose, I hope 
before God to be excused. My service concerning which 
I have a good conscience before God, is clearly enough 
expressed in the conditions of our contract or agreement 
and consists of this — to reveal again and bring to light 
according to my power our neglected theology. Formal 
worship is not a part of this neither is it a part of formal 
worship. For regular worship and a regular congregation 
belong together. Regular worship has indeed been estab- 
lished, meetings have been held, now in this place and 
now in that and, though one guard against it the best way 
possible, one can not prevent the growing out of it of an 
established order and custom. And it might easily happen 
that at my death some fickle person with a little worldly 
wisdom without savor or strength might allow himself to 

6o The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

be used to step into such place and in appearance to imitate 
the same. I, therefore, recall such ordinary regular service 
in my simplicity and will on my own account hold services, 
public and free to all. And thus I hope to place matters 
upon such a footing that when I die the plan may die with 
me." Weiss continued his labors, however, and another 
disturbance was soon created by Wiegner and Spangen- 
berg of which more will be said in a subsequent chapter. 

The Schwenkfelders did not stand by Weiss as they 
could and should have. On account of this non-respon- 
siveness, Weiss for a time ceased going to Macungie and 
still later to Goshenhoppen to conduct services. Sickness 
came upon him and he was so depressed in spirit that he 
entertained the thought of giving up his public services al- 
together. The contract renewed in 1737 seemed to influ- 
ence him, however, and he resolved to continue and thus 
to set an example to his flock. Later he conducted services 
at the house where he was staying and worshippers had to 
go there. The result was that many stayed away and 
lukewarmness grew. His feeling towards the people is 
probably fairly represented in these words, written by him 
in September, 1738: "The jealous spirits, the ignoble 
thoughts, the derogatory remarks, the secret envy and the 
idiosyncrasies both towards me as well as towards each 
other prove quite plainly that nothing is wanting more in 
you than the properties of a church " or organized body of 

The laxity of the people grew ; his zeal grew likewise 
and toil followed in both districts as though matters had 
reached a final issue even while a weakness of body and 
constitution hampered him. Finally a serious sickness be- 
fell him that confined him to his bed. Full of hope that 
he would be enabled to resume his efforts for the young, 

Death of Rev. Weiss. 6i 

the unexpected summons came to him a week after he had 
met his dear children in the faith for the last time in 
Goshenhoppen and he was called to his reward on the 
eleventh of March, 1740. 

The death of Weiss left the Schwenkfelders disunited 
and unorganized for religious services. His labors had 
not met the success that he deserved and the people had 
not reached the high ideal he had placed for them. A 
glance at what he tried to accomplish must suffice. He 
wished to secure a sacred observance of Sunday and the 
ordained holy days by strict cessation from work and oc- 
cupation of the day by reading and meditation or attend- 
ance on public worship. The married state was to be en- 
tered upon in the fear of the Lord and all worldliness and 
sinful propensities were to be religiously repressed. Chil- 
dren were to be consecrated to the Lord and His service. 
In worldly avocations men were to follow Paul's advice, 
having food and raiment — therewith to be content. His 
aim as to religious services is thus described by Hoffman : 
*' To have religious services on Sundays both forenoon and 
afternoon with a kind of preparatory service on Saturday 
evening, at which hymns were sung and religious exhor- 
tations and explanations of scripture passages were given. 
During the winter meetings were also held on Sunday 
evening at which the children were catechized and in- 
structed. On Sundays for the regular services a sermon 
was read, followed by religious comments both in the fore- 
noon and the afternoon. The three most important sacred 
days of the church year were observed three days, at 
which special services were held. Once a week a meet- 
ing was held in order that the hearts of the people might 
be drawn away from temporal things. The children 
were catechized at least two times each week and often 

62 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

three times, in order that with their daily toil they might 
be grounded in the principles of their doctrines. Balzer 
Hoffman was appointed as his assistant in order that when 
he was away in Macungie, Goshenhoppen or elsewhere 
services might not be discontinued. The yearly gathering 
for thanksgiving, the ' Geddchtniss Tag'' or Memorial 
Day was sacredly observed. When the young wished to 
marry they were instructed previously in Christian doc- 
trine — particularly as to holy matrimony. At funerals 
religious services were also held, and soon after birth the 
young were consecrated to the Lord." 

Upon the death of Weiss it seemed for a time as if re- 
ligious services would not be resumed. An arrangement 
was devised that, however, was destined to be short-lived. 
Four heads of families {Haus-vdter) met and agreed to 
hold services in their houses in the hope that the same 
might be introductory to some better plan. Balzer Hoff- 
man by request took charge of the services and tried to 
follow the plans of Weiss as closely as possible. Dissen- 
sion and discord soon became manifest again. Discour- 
agement followed and Hoffman resigned. May, 1741. 
The general condition of things is shown by the fact that 
children did not receive half the attention they had re- 
ceived during the lifetime of Weiss. Hoffman was ap- 
pealed to. He was touched and expressed himself in two 
letters dated July 9, 1741, in which he laid down thirty-six 
propositions to which assent was given with the result that 
an organization was formed again and deacons were 
chosen. Hoffman again resigned at the close of the 
church year 1744, ^^^ ^^^ persuaded to resume charge 
soon after. These two resignations were due to want of 
harmony between him and the Schwenkfelders in respect 
to doctrine, the daily life and views about their meetings. 

Balzcr Ho f man. 63 

In 1749 Hoffman resigned for the third time on account of 
health, a bodily affection making speaking and singing 
almost impossible. 

During his ministration Hoffman had charge of the reg- 
ular Sunday services, funerals and the exercises on Me- 
morial Day. At the marriages he was occasionally asked 
to officiate ; at other times a neighboring minister or an of- 
ficer of the law was called upon. The children were trained 
in doctrines but not as thoroughly as in the time of Weiss ; 
the non-conciliatory and intolerant spirit of Weiss per- 
vaded Hoffman, and had its baneful effect, repelling men 
like Dr. Abraham Wagner and causing a dwindling down 
to less than half a dozen catechumens where there might 
have been scores. 

After the resignation of Balzer Hoffman in 1749 ^ g^^' 
eral conference was talked of but not called because many 
felt that under existing circumstances but little good could 
be accomplished. Near the close of 1753, five heads of 
families {Haiis-vdter) agreed to visit each other in their 
homes in rotation every third Sunday to edify one another 
and to assist one another by discussing matters of doctrine. 
This they chose to call Besiich^ visit, rather than Ver- 
sammhcng, meeting, because according to their view many 
important things belonged to a Christian meeting which they 
had not undertaken. Not a word was said about disci- 
pline, or the ordering of external arrangements or the neces- 
sity of rules, or the pledging themselves together as a body. 
The compact thus formed was regarding only as a semi- 
private arrangement for religious culture by the families 
that took part — all who wished to attend being welcome 
to do so. In 1759 a few more families joined in with the 
services and it was decided to meet every two instead of 
three weeks. But the system was too limited and was far 

64 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

from being satisfactory. From the minutes of the general 
conference held in 1762, it is evident that matters seemed 
to be drifting to utter decay ; the young people had no safe 
guide or direction with respect to their teaching of life, the 
children did not receive any catechetical instruction, there 
was no system for general public religious meetings, nor 
organization into whose hands a pious parent might entrust 
his children. 

In view of this condition of things a general conference 
was held Saturday, October 9, 1762, at the house of 
Christopher Kriebel. The existing state among the people 
was discussed at some length and a paper, presented by 
Christopher Kriebel, was read and approved. The line of 
thought of said paper was that the deliverance from op- 
pression, the replacing of the property abandoned, their 
preservation, the deliverance from the hands of the Indians, 
the blessings on their labors, the continuance of their lives 
should incite them to gratitude, but, to translate the word- 
ing : '<We, on the contrary, have delighted ourselves in 
things of time ; envy, slander, calumny, false accusations 
have separated us and the young are neglected. Such a 
condition of things ought to touch our hearts and cause us 
to tremble in view of the final judgment. We ought to 
turn away from these things, avoid useless disputations, 
live Christian lives, turn unto the Lord for direction and 
seek to become learners in His school. Were we to do 
this our yokes would be lighter and we would be recon- 
ciled to one another." A few of the lines of discussion 
are indicated by the following questions propounded at 
the conference : " (i) Will we be able to bear with one an- 
other, if a closer union is formed so that what is undertaken 
may not be ended in strife and works of evil? (2) Will 
we be willing to grant to each other the liberty of reading 

S c hzv en kf elder Imprints. 




Answered and Confirmed. 

...■ „,T»»o"«HiT'Mn"Thr. .lusT fBlNr.MT- 

K. /I. Htr. Ihrltloittirr .tthills, '"•■" 

RklppackvlIlP, Pa- 

(•,,„. -,1<.V J M.S.h-ien.-^ 
I S 1. I 

^ «u rje 

S- r tt ^ e n 



© ^ t i (I n d> « p 


ieaiitwettet untitftdtigrt. 

I Im' ([iriflli*fn ©lanttiie - Sdiilttn ju 

(inrm anfanglii^cn Unlrtr(4t nii^liit 

JU gctrauitin. 




SfiippadiDillr, |)a. 

(Brttudi kti 3, OT, S(i)uncinann 
18 5 5 


.S\ u r 5 c 

11 t b c c bit 

^wl. 6cl)vift3e'i'i"ii^ 

bciiiimnn-tct luit bCfO(i[jri.r. 

S)cii ebnYiIulKii eioiiK-iiJ.edjiilaii 

•511 ciiicni fliiifliujIUbi'ii UiitaiicOt 

niil;l«1) JU si'-bcaml/'ti. 


CJfbriKft 6? (Jar If Iff, 'tU" 

3mi)lfn.(irM(Tc, n"*- 


5infdn9(i(^er Uitterric^f 



3ung c6er tU rt, 
nit^ig un& nielict) |Tcl? 6im 5u iibm. 

■ SoriniC'l: >>' 
Sncn oit^crn 9fun& fan nrtmonD [cjm, Aufcr Ofn) 
hrgclestill/ twHttifi 3<fu« (ESnU*?. 

3tfu« €|)tl|tn« (ftCireifliim, oufoel^MJa 
giin|( !5au in (inanMr 9<fii.i<t, miii(a vi <mm tti> 
lijtn Scnjcl inCiimJE)eS!ia!J!. 

©rtrurft b<o -SJenrid) tSJJiIUt, in ht 


66 The Pennsylrania- German Society. 

authors other than those commonly accepted by us ? (3) 
Will we be ready to bear with one another if in some 
point of doctrine we can not agree in our views? " The 
favorable answers given indicate plainly a decided depar- 
ture from the position assumed by men of the type of Weiss 
and Hoffman. The meeting was altogether a heart- 
searching, prayerful and face-to-face consideration of the 
sad condition of affairs among them. The necessity for a 
closer union having been considered and plans devised, 
the want of a suitable catechism was also considered. 
Christopher Schultz was instructed to prepare his manu- 
script catechism for the press. The following spring it 
was put into the hands of the printer. 

The system or plan devised was continued until the 
adoption of the constitution in 1782. Further details of 
the arrangement are given in a letter by Christopher 
Schultz substantially as follows: "The arrangement is 
that we heads of families {Hatis-vdter) jointly conduct 
our religious services. Each is as much and has as much 
right as the other, free and unrestrained. But he in whose 
house a meeting is held provides the materials for the 
forenoon exercises. He who has a word of exhortation 
of whatever nature, be it his own thoughts or selection 
from hymns or books, presents the same to the meeting 
upon which it is discussed and applied. For dinner we 
stay at the said house — except such as go to neighboring 
houses — and eat a piece of bread and butter according 
to necessity, the family always providing the guests with 
such meal. In the forenoon the exercises consist of sing- 
ing, prayer, reading of the gospel lesson, singing of 
another hymn, reading of the sermon and closing with a 
prayer. In the afternoon we have Kinderlehr. Each 
pupil repeats a verse of the gospel lesson of the day and 



Sifii = (Sinoirriittfff-5 

in ficti l\ili.-uD 

i a 1)1 in lung 

(mtlrmihcil* ultei) 
f(t)^nct lfhr:tci(Vrt un6 frt'ouliclKt 


I e 6 c IV 

5Btl(1)C von InniKr S'l' b" ■!"" f^" SBffcnncrn 

yn^ firbhokiM ^f^ (Jlfnm un6 2B^Vb(iw 

iKiu e^nOI bi* >nit;o tn Ulbuif 


9?Qd) bcii ^aupt^Sriicffn bet gfjiiftli-- 

•ttc" ht)t iii'O 0*l(iiil*fii5 <m9(tbiil'i. 


OTit eiium OJnjfidjni^ ^cr 2itrl 

unf ^tl^),^ ■JTuKlidjcn aifjifttrn 

Slnjfljp- nlfo inronimtn gctragtn, 

gum Sobe ®Ortc^ imb btilfamcn 

gibjuun^ nil Chiiitonrl)uni, 
an? ?iiti «g»*tn 

<i5«tm«ilteirn, ^^^nlcft bio CbridolJlj Suur 
«ijf lcfl(n nrttntsfff JiiMiilyi. .7*? 




(nttmirtKil* <ltn) 

er6QUli(J)cr SicDcr, 

ijotf) Nn jjjaui'tftucftn ti«t Cbnflli'djm £<!)« uno 
@laub(n« (ingctt^dkt 

(StSnufi b«u CtiiiriiB 'S""'". inkft JiMjtm Slrjjf 

(Sinjjcii tag I66litt)j?< ©«f(6dflt. 

■ytr, (2'«n (rfi font Sii Mrbtii 
304S iiiior aUdi %b<U(ik 

?(in bcffcn fcD jii i^U"? 
l^cljou' tVii? Itjiiir I»c"ii dir Bfobffl- 
"Dio Dcin *ni. l.-lbfl nl)»btn. 

3u eicn.ii ft»ii out fcH'tin QAroii' 

Split inuftnb ifluftiiD T><nrj|i 

Sen fehJnfioii Vobjcfiiiy 
SBoi Ootrts 'JtjioiK lul)'tii 
■Jjcm Commc iubil>itn, 

");» nUtriufrcin "JtuftrSinna. 


tint Soraralong ttbnoUdjfr ffirr, 

d)ri|'llif1)«t Cf{)r> 



68 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

all are questioned on the literal, theological and spiritual 
sense of the same. Catechization follows, the young 
being divided into classes and being treated differently- 
according to age, etc. From this you perceive that we 
have not undertaken to organize a Christian denomination 
{Christliche Gemeine) to be directed and served by min- 
isters." The meetings were held alternately at the follow- 
ing houses, one Sunday in the Upper District, the fol- 
lowing Sunday in the Lower District : Casper Kriebel, 
Hans Christoph Heebner, Casper Seibt, George Kriebel, 
Christoph Hoffman, Christoph Kriebel, George Schultz, 
Melchior Schultz, Christoph Schultz, Christoph Krauss, 
Christoph Yeakel, John Yeakel, Sr., Gregorius Schultz, 
George Schultz. The hymn-book used by them was the 
Netieingerichtetes Gesanghuch prepared by them and 
printed by Christopher Saur, 1762. 

Among the salient features of this period may be men- 
tioned the following relating to organized efforts in the 
line of public worship. The systematic and regular cate- 
chization of the young was begun in the spring of 1763 
by Christopher Schultz and Balzer Hoffman, the latter 
also officiating at marriages and funerals, although not 
taking an active part in the established system of meetings. 
The following year Hoffman relinquished all public ser- 
vices on account of the infirmities of age, being past seventy- 
six at that time. In 1764 the school system described in 
another chapter was organized and the following year the 
erection of a school-house at Towamencin took place, 
probably the first house erected for general purposes by 
the Schwenkf elders in America. In 1765 the justly cele- 
brated " Heintze Correspondence" with European friends 
was opened. The exchange of letters with their friends 
since the migration grew to large proportions, and thus 

Plan of Religions Services. 69 

many personals were recorded and preserved that otherwise 
would have been lost. In 1769 a general marriage con- 
tract was drawn up which was renewed in fuller detail in 
1779. These forms illustrate the method of procedure in 
case any of their young people wished to enter the mar- 
ried state. The latter is given in full in the Appendix. 
The scheme of worship and work thus devised, though a 
considerable advance on former plans, was in many 
respects defective as later experience showed. 

Although the period from 1734 to 1782 may appear 
gloomy on account of the lack of hearty cooperation as a 
religious brotherhood by organizing a church or society 
true spiritual culture was by no means overlooked. George 
Weiss formed the habit of writing short religious tracts 
and sending them to the young under his charge. This 
he kept up nearly all his lifetime. Balzer Hoffman was 
also a voluminous writer. Catechization of the young 
was soon taken up and continued through this period. An 
earnestness of life was cultivated with which the church of 
to-day is unfamiliar. Much quiet meditation was engaged 
in, and hymns, sermons and other sacred writings were 
copied. Memorial Day was, during this period, the great 
day of the year. Weiss, Hoffman and Schultz in par- 
ticular held forth on this day in powerful addresses which 
in many cases were copied and recopied and are worthy 
of being carefully studied. These addresses were mainly 
heart-searching, doctrinal sermons and must have had a 
strong influence in the moulding of their hearers. 

The plan of services agreed upon in 1762 and continued 
twenty years threw more responsibility upon the individual 
worshipper, helped to develop a deeper spirituality and 
did not have the blighting effect of the modern system of 
thinking, singing, praying and worshipping by a paid 

70 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

proxy. Marriages were not entered into as lightly as at 
present. Questions were asked, a sermon was preached 
and the occasion made almost as solemn as that of admis- 
sion to church. Marriage then was a sacred sacrament 
and not merely a light-hearted legal pledge or promise to 
be broken as lightly as entered upon. This period wit- 
nessed the formation and publication of the catechism, the 
Ej'ldtiterimg, and the hymn-book, the composition of many 
tracts on religious subjects and of the Glauhenslehre in 
particular, the compilation and transcription of large manu- 
script volumes still in a good state of preservation. The 
Charity Fund was organized, the School Fund collected 
and practically all the tools devised and formed which 
were made use of in the closer organization that superseded 
this transitional stage. 


The Adoption of the Constitution of 1782. 

. HILE considering the adoption of 
a constitution by the Schwenk- 
felders, the reader will remember 
that by this step the adherents of 
the views of Schwenkfeld en- 
tered upon a new period. Never 
before had a regular organization 
been attempted. Before 1734 
this had been utterly impossible on account of state reasons 
beyond the control of the Schwenkfelders. After 1734 
organization as a church had been resisted and thus prob- 
ably prevented by Weiss and Hoftman. Of the families 
that migrated in 1734, only those of Melchior Kriebel, of 
Gwynedd and David Heebner, of Worcester, were left un- 
broken by death and neither of these men joined in the or- 
ganization. Of the forty odd families formed in the first 
twenty-five years after the migration, less than a score re- 
mained and less than half a score were represented by the 
heads in the organization. Of those even who had joined 
in the organization of 1762 and had taken part thereafter in 
the religious services, most had passed away. The natural 
inference would seem to be that the original immigrants 
stood in the way of a more perfect union and that only 


72 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

after death had removed many did organization become 
possible. The trend of things seemed to demand the 
step and discussion arose and grew. A chronicler of the 
tinies says: "It is to be noted that about the year 1781 a 
movement began to manifest itself more and more among 
our people to unite themselves more closely into a religious 
society, in order that in a mutual way such regulations and 
arrangements might be made and agreed upon among our- 
selves as would be serviceable to good conduct and edifi- 
cation and the upholding of our Christian confession of 
faith and the maintaining of a proper discipline. Many 
were indifferent, mutual mistrust seemed to fill some hearts 
and there was so much lukewarmness manifest that utter 
ruin seemed to stare the people in the face. There was 
great neglect in the fulfillment of ordinary Christian 
duties. The children were remiss in Christian culture, 
the young people upon and after marriage showed scant 
attention to the doctrines of the fathers, many seemed to 
be surcharged with envy and calumny and indifference 
concerning many serious matters prevailed." 

In the movement Christopher Schultz was the leading 
spirit and well earned the name " Father " in this connec- 
tion. Others, indeed, took important parts and should 
not be forgotten, but he preeminently deserves to be recog- 
nized for the leading place he filled. In the deliberations 
frequent reference was made to the writings of Schwenk- 
feld, Christopher Schultz and a recently published tract 
on church discipline issued by the Quakers, the duty of 
Christian fellowship was strongly advocated and the 
question raised how any one could have a right to separate 
himself from others. 

At the first constitutional convention held in the " Lower 
District," February 5, 1782, the condition of the Schwenk- 

O r 










A-p-proval of Church Constitution. 73 

f elders and their children was considered, some remarks 
were made and the following questions proposed for con- 
sideration : " (i) Is it necessary and profitable to educate 
children in Christian doctrine? (2) Can more time than 
formerly be allowed for their instruction? (3) Should 
a different method or other teachers be employed in teach- 
ing? (4) Should not the newly married devote more time 
to the study of Christian doctrine? " At the second confer- 
ence held in " Coshehoppe," a rough sketch of the con- 
templated constitution was discussed. The third confer- 
ence was held in Towamencin, June i, 1782. After some 
preliminary discussion the proposed constitution as drawn 
up by Reverend Christopher Schultz was laid before the 
meeting under the name: ^^ Vorschlag niltzlicher Stiikke 
bey eincr religiosen Gesellschafft in christliches Bedeneken 
ZJi Ziehen.''^ Some at once gave their assent to the scheme 
and others asked time for consideration. The questions 
raised at the first conference were then discussed. The 
first was answered in the affirmative, the second was laid 
on the table, the third was answered in the negative, and 
the fourth was laid on the table. It was agreed that all 
who gave their assent to the proposed constitution should 
sign it in testimony thereof. The following form of sub- 
scription, as adopted August 15, was annexed to the con- 
stitution and then signed: "We, the undersigned, hereby 
declare in writing, that we approve the above constitution 
and that it is our desire that our society may be united on 
said plan, and each of us hereby promises that by the help 
of God he will in his weakness help to promote the same." 
George Kriebel said on Memorial Day, 1789, that Chris- 
topher Schultz told him that the constitution was given as 
he first wrote it without changing a word and that he felt 
a movement in his heart as the same was put into his mind. 

74 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

The Constitution or Fundamental Principles 


Adopted in 1782. 

1. Every person desiring to be a member of this Church 
should concern himself about a proper and approved ideal 
upon which the members are to be established in all things, 
and in accordance with which they are to form their union. 

2. All those who would be in this religious association 
should place this foundation and ideal before their eyes as 
an aim set before them for which they are to strive with 
becoming zeal and energy. 

3. In God's nature one beholds love primarily as that 
excellent outflowing virture which binds together God and 
man. All those who wish to take sure steps for the reali- 
zation of said ideal must, first of all, form and maintain 
their unity by this bond of perfection among themselves. 

4. Built on this fundamental principle of the divine 
nature — namely, love — their single, immovable aim must 
and will be to glorify God and promote the general wel- 
fare of each member. 

5. In compliance with such object, their first care in 
their common affairs must be directed to a proper arrange- 
ment of public worship flowing from said foundation and 
agreeing with said ideal. 

6. The gospel or word of God is the treasure which the 
Lord Jesus gave his apostles, and by which, as He com- 
manded, the nations were to be called to faith and gathered, 
to be nurtured and ruled. It is the chief element in public 
worship and the rule of all its exercises. 

7. It follows that they not only ought to possess this 
treasure, but they must also, with care, see to it that the 
gospel and the word of God are preserved and practiced 
by them in purity and simplicity, without which they can- 
not be nor remain a Christian people. 

Fundamental Principles. 75 

8. It follows, also, that they must have persons among 
themselves who know, live and teach the doctrine : other- 
wise it would be a dead letter, and could not bring about 
the good referred to in 6 ; hence proper plans must be de- 
vised in this respect. 

9. There follow also the unceasing effort and care for 
the instruction of youth, both in what may be learned in 
schools as also in what should be taught in the study of 
the word of God or Christian doctrine, without which their 
aim referred to in 4 cannot be maintained nor the doctrine 
be upheld. 

10. The repeated voluntary gathering for public worship 
with appointment of time and place for the same belongs 
also to the common care and concern. 

11. Besides the appointment of public worship and the 
practice of God's word, a religious society, if it would at 
all attain its object, must strive to uphold a proper discipline 
among themselves, in order that through the same a guard 
and restraint may be set against the attacks and hindrances 
of the evil one, and that his work may be destroyed where 
it has taken root ; that a good and useful deportment may 
be maintained in intercourse and conduct ; that the hand 
of mutual help may be offered under all occurrences, and 
that virtue and good morals may be promoted. 

12. They must have fixed rules and regulations among 
themselves by which they may know who belong to their 
society or not ; they must also use diligence to keep cor- 
rect records of all that is enacted by them and upon which 
they have mutually agreed in matters relating to discipline, 
in order that no one may take ignorance as an excuse, but 
that all may conform thereto. 

13. Since good rules are necessary in the exercise of 
commendable discipline, the revealed will of God con- 

*j6 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

tained in the Ten Commandments in their full and perfect 
sense will be to them the best and most adequate rule for 
the promotion of good conduct or morals, for defense 
against the evil, for discriminating between the good and 
the evil. 

14. In conformity to their aim and rules, they will, be- 
sides this, also consider useful and proper regulations, so 
that commendable decorum may be preserved under the 
diverse circumstances, as marriage, training of children, 
family life, death, burials and the like. 

15. The practice and maintenance of such discipline and 
regulations will always have their temptations, since we 
all carry these by nature in our own bosoms ; it will, there- 
fore, likewise be necessary to have faithful persons who 
will see to it that discipline and good order are not neg- 
lected, but maintained and promoted by each member. 

16. In order, however, that such service may not be 
made too difficult, but be possible and endurable for such 
persons, each and every member, by proper regulations, 
must take part in said exercises and supervision, whereby 
at the first notice of the outbreak of an offence its progress 
may at once be checked, and the deacon not be troubled 
by it. 

17. Certain conferences should also be appointed as 
time may occasion or the circumstances of the general wel- 
fare may demand, at which the condition of the Church, 
for weal or woe, may be considered, doubtful or question- 
able matters decided, and the general welfare and useful 
arrangements and institutions in general may be cared for. 

The following were the original subscribers to the con- 
stitution : George Schultz, Christopher Yeakel, Christo- 
pher Schultz, Jacob Yeakel, David Schultz, Christopher 
Krauss, George Wiegner, Abraham Schultz, Balthasar 

Awi of Organization. *j*j 

Schultz, Andrew Schultz, George Kriebel, Jeremiah 
Kriebel, David Schultz, Melchior Schultz, Balthasar 
Krauss, Christopher Meschter, Casper Yeakel, Christopher 
Schultz, Jr., Melchior Yeakel, Balthasar Schultz, Gre- 
gorius Schultz, Matthias Gerhard, Christopher Hoffman, 
Abraham Kriebel, Melchior Kriebel, Jr., Jeremiah Kriebel, 
Christopher Schultz, Abraham Kriebel, Jr., Andrew Krie- 
bel, George Kriebel, Jr., George Heydrich, Abraham 
Drescher, George Heebner, Melchior Schultz, Jr., Chris- 
topher Yeakel, Jr., David Kriebel, Christopher Yeakel, 
Abraham Yeakel, Peter Gerhard, George Anders, George 

These 41 organizers are called Haus-vdter (House 
fathers, heads of families) and a study of the names shows 
that in all probability they were all married men. The 
widows and the wives, the unmarried young men and 
young women are thus made conspicuous by their absence. 
That they were not overlooked will be shown in another 

On the 23d of September a conference was held at which, 
among other proceedings, the following explanation was 
recorded ; that the aim of organization into a religious 
body is not to set a net to be drawn tight after persons are 
caught, nor to make contracts that children must be put 
under religious instruction a certain length of time as some 
might suppose, but to show that the duty towards Him and 
our fellow-men placed upon us by God is recognized and 
that an effort will be made mutually to help each other to 
fulfill the same. 

It may not be amiss in conclusion to quote the following 
words of Christopher Schultz penned on the occasion 
of the completion of the constitution. He wrote these 
words : ' 

78 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

** It is indeed easy to place a proposition on paper and 
perhaps even to give consent to it. The proper grounding 
of the same within one's self and its carrying out are a 
different matter. The former without the latter is but 
vanity, however good and necessary this may be. It is 
incontestible that if such a plan is to be carried out, love 
must have its due place and must rule within us and 
between us. Wherefore we must needs be concerned 
about this foundation and seek after it, in order that it may 
manifest itself in us from all sides, so that its work and 
fruits may give evidence that we are Christ's disciples. 
The most serious question, indeed, with me is, whether at 
this time such a plan can continue to exist among us. 
Let us not flatter ourselves. For this purpose it is neces- 
sary that we place plainly before our minds the nature and 
marks of love as described by the Apostle Paul, and then 
that we look back upon ourselves to see how far these 
marks have shown themselves within us. The Lord tells 
us that he who would build a tower should first sit down 
and count the cost whether he have sufficient to finish it ; 
otherwise he might as well leave it undone. He who tries 
to follow this counsel will here find occasion to be seriously 
afraid and concerned with me in consideration of the sor- 
rowful product that manifests itself in mutual conduct and 
inclination. I confess that although in the projecting of 
the Vorschlag, I was favorably inclined and, as it were, 
led in a becoming ease of mind, certain things came up 
to my mind soon after that depressed me considerably. 
Meanwhile, giving up is a most sinful despair while God 
lives. Whatever weakness and shortcoming may be in us, 
in Him is and may be found full counsel and compensation 
but we do not concern ourselves about the affliction of 
Joseph and sleep on beds of ivory. In the name and by 



the command of our faithful mediator and intercessor let 
us press in and besiege the throne of grace. How wel- 
come, indeed, would we be before our holy Father in 
heaven, were we to implore Him for the proper thing, the 
gift of His love ! O ! my beloved ! we must make up our 
minds to this, otherwise all our toil will be useless. We 
must also implore Him for the pardon of all that we have 
hitherto done against His love. It is also necessary that 
we learn to recognize and to admit our duty and show our 
consequent inclination heartily to pardon one another. 
Effect this within us all by thy Spirit, O, Father of all 
grace, for the merits of thy dear Son, to thine own eternal 
glory. Amen." 

Church Life Under the Constitution of 1782. 

LL the various activities pertaining to 
church life conducted by the Schwenk- 
felders at the adoption of the consti- 
tution were of course continued and 
assumed by the new organization sub- 
ject to the proper limiting conditions. 
The relation of this body to the teach- 
ings of Schwenkfeld are thus expressed 
by the Formula of Government: "The members of the 
Schwenkfelder church believe that the Bible is the suffi- 
cient and only infallible rule of faith and practice and in 
their interpretation of the same follow for substance of 
teaching the system of doctrine as taught by Casper 
Schwenkfeld of Ossig." The constitution as adopted 
and referred to in the previous chapter was frequently 
copied and thus circulated. It was first printed as an ap- 
pendix to the Erldiiterung of 1830 and became a part of 
the Constitution and By-Laws of the Schwenkfelder So- 
ciety, issued in 185 1, of which an English version appeared 
in 1882 and revised editions in 1898 and 1902, known as 
the Formula for the Government and Discipline of the 


Appeal to the Young. 8i 

Schwenkfeldcr Clmrch. These various editions were 
growths and evolutions of the scheme as mapped out in 
1782, adapted to the needs, wants and emergencies as 
they manifested themselves. The term "Church," as 
applied to this body of believers is of quite recent date, 
the earlier terms being Gemeinde, Gemeine, Gesellschafft, 
Society, Fraternity. The term " Schwenkfelder " is used 
in preference to " Schwenkfeldian " because it is the cus- 
tomary word in all records of the past and in legal papers 
of the present. 

Christopher Schultz, by request, drew up an "Appeal" 
to the young in 1783, to encourage them to join the " So- 
ciety." It was also agreed that in the case of women 
signing should not be called for at their admission, a mere 
word of assent being considered sufficient. The questions 
asked at the admission of members were used quite early 
in the history of the organization, but the authorship of the 
same seems to be forgotten, tradition pointing however at 
George Kriebel. 

Christopher Schultz's "Appeal " was used frequently in 
entreating the young for membership, but with all this the 
spirit of freedom was so strong that the winning of new 
members was not an easy task. The records show that 
as early as the year 1803 there was a period of great laxity 
in church matters ; many had wandered away to other 
churches, the parents were indifferent about their children 
and affairs in general were at a low ebb. Parents were 
urged by resolution to use proper efforts to encourage their 
children to join the society and members pledged them- 
selves anew to use diligence to promote the welfare of the 
body. In cases of discipline names of offenders were 
omitted from the minutes and an effort was made to win 
back those who for any reason had severed their connec- 

82 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

tion with the society. During this period many of the 
young people neglected to join the church until they ex- 
pected to be married, when the rules and regulations made 
membership a necessity if they hoped to have the ceremony 
performed by a minister of the society. 

By resolution it was agreed in 1828, at a conference 
that children over whom the prayer for children had been 
pronounced should be considered members of the society. 
This rule was a dead letter and is not regarded at all by 
present regulations. At various periods defections took 
place to other religious bodies. Joshua Schultz said : "It 
has never been the custom of these people to make prose- 
lytes ; on the contrary, they were content when they were 
not assailed by others on this account. However, not- 
withstanding their endeavor to conduct themselves as the 
Stille im Land and attend to their own calling, they did 
not escape these troubles." For the last twenty-five years 
the church has enjoyed a more earnest effort to win mem- 
bership and the cold indifference has been replaced by a 
more becoming zeal. 

Meeting Houses. — The first place for public worship 
owned by the Schwenkfelders in America was erected of 
logs in the summer of 1790 where the present Hosensack 
meeting house now stands. At one end a school-room 
was partitioned off, supplied with tables and benches, 
where for many years a parochial school was conducted. 
The first services in this building were held August 8, 
1790, the tenth Sunday after Trinity. This log building 
was replaced by a more modern though plain and unpre- 
tentious stone structure in 1838 which a noted minister was 
accustomed to call a mill. It was remodelled in 1893. 
The second meeting house was erected in 1791 where the 
present Washington Meeting House stands. The first ser- 

Meeting Houses. 83 

vices at this place were held on Memorial Day, Saturday, 
September 24, 1791. In 1824 it was proposed to build a 
new and more modern house of worship. Neither the 
vigorous resistance of David Schultz against the sacri- 
legious destruction of the old building nor the plea of 
others to build the new house at a place near the present 
Palm Station so as to have only one place of worship 
prevailed and the new building went up the same year. It 
was remodelled in 1883. 

The first meeting house in the so-called Lower District 
was erected in 1793 where the present Towamencin meet- 
ing house stands. The school-house that stood there and 
had done service for many years, probably gave way for this 
new structure. The first services were held July 21, 1793, 
the eighth Sunday after Trinity. According to Edward 
Mathews: "This building was of logs, pebble-dashed, 
with the gable ends weather-boarded and painted red. 
There was a portico in front with seats on either side. 
The date over the portico was of 1795 (3 ?)•" This building 
was replaced in 1854 ^7 ^ plain stone structure which in 
turn gave way to the present brick building in 1893. In 
1825 the first Kraussdale meeting house was built which 
did service until 1857 when it was replaced by the present 
brick building which was remodelled in 1900. 

The present meeting house at Lower Salford, the first at 
that place, was erected in 1869. At these five places of 
meeting, school children were taught in the week during 
the winter months practically up to the adoption of the 
public school system. In 1835 the question was raised 
whether it would not be advisable to erect a house of 
worship in the Worcester district. The result was that 
the following year a meeting house was erected where 
the Worcester meeting house now stands. This was re- 

84 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

placed by the present, more modern building in 1882. 
It is worthy of note that the latter building was the first one 
to have a basement for Sunday-school purposes erected 
by the Schwenkfelders and that this innovation met with 
considerable vigorous opposition. When the Towamencin 
meeting house of 1893 was built, the basement was re- 
garded a desirable improvement and no opposition was 
encountered. The first Mission church building was that 
of the First Schwenkfelder Church in Philadelphia, Pa., 
and was dedicated October 23, 1898. 

The Ministry. — At the time of organization, brethren 
were elected to whom the customary ministerial duties 
were entrusted. This action did not imply the creation of 
a priestly class or a recognition of a division of the mem- 
bership into clerg}' and laity. Duties were then not as 
exacting nor the services as frequent as now ; men were 
chosen who had been brought up in the atmosphere of the 
teachings of the Schwenkfelders and had thus been indoc- 
trinated quite thoroughly. No fixed salaries were paid — 
in fact practically no financial remuneration was given, 
though the ministers were not allowed to live in want. 
Although no distinct previous resolution had been passed 
when the first edition of the Constitution a^id By-Laws 
was adopted in 185 1, a clause was inserted in the By-Laws 
saying that the minister was to perform his services gratis, 
quoting (or rather misquoting) Christ's word, " Freely ye 
have received, freely give," specifying, however, that the 
ministers were to be excused and exempted from all out- 
lays which occur in the church and which may be called 
church expenses. This was not in harmony with the 
teaching of the Glaubenslehrc adopted half a century 
before by the Schwenkfelders saying that it is a duty of 
hearers towards the preachers, " Sie nach Nothdurfft zu 

Licentiates. 85 

versorgeti." As years rolled on and the changes incident 
to the life of the community manifested themselves a dif- 
ferent view began to prevail as embodied in the Formula of 
Government^ 1898. With no prospect of any financial re- 
muneration, young men could scarcely be expected to take 
a full course of theological training as is the present custom 
the youngest ministers, Rev. O. S. Kriebel, being a grad- 
uate of Oberlin University and Theological Seminary, and 
Rev. E. E. S. Johnson, of Princeton University and the 
Hartford Theological Seminary. The ministers were elected 
by the male members of the church by ballot and were 
expected to assume duty at once. They served for a 
period of several years as " Licentiates," or *■'■ Lehr-Can- 
didaten" before they were made full ministers. The aver- 
age of the ages of these candidates at their final election 
from first to last is 44 years. Good results were ob- 
tained, but it would be rash to say that the best possible 
results can be obtained by such methods. On account of 
the rural type of membership the ministers were in nearly 
every case farmers who followed such worldly vocation in 
connection with their pastoral duties. 

Though these servants of God had not studied in the 
theological schools and did not receive pay in dollars and 
dimes for their labors it would be unjust to think of them 
as weak, unlearned, unsuccessful preachers. Reverend 
John Schultz (1772-1827), who had been brought up under 
these circumstances and who, while toiling as a farmer, 
served his church very acceptably as a minister, in trans- 
mitting a sketch of the Schwenkfelders, wrote a letter to 
Pastor Plitt, of Philadelphia, 1820, that called forth these 
words : " This letter seems to be filled with such a spirit 
of love and moderation that John the beloved disciple might 
accept it as his own. In orthography and the simple but 

86 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

strong and pure old German style, the writer surpasses 
many of our present young ministers. We are told that 
this man, although a farmer, has devoted considerable 
attention to theological knowledge and has attended a 
Latin school."^ Of Christopher Schultz, Jr. (1777-1853), 
Rev. C. Z. Weiser had this to say: "Tall, venerable, 
talented, self-educated and pious, he won their esteem 
and love as well as the good-will of the surrounding 
Church membership.* * * Through him more especially, 
had the intercourse and fellowship with the Reformed and 
Lutheran congregations become intimate. At well-nigh 
every funeral occasion, the Schwenkfelder pastor Schultz 
was invited to officiate at the house of mourning. So far 
indeed had he gradually and quietly ingratiated himself 
into the love and esteem of the Reformed congregations 
especially that during a vacancy occurring in the history 
of one of the latter, through the pastor's death it was seri- 
ously proposed to employ Pastor Schultz as a supply until 
a pastor of their own should be elected."^ 

The Diaconate. — According to the constitutional pro- 
vision, at a conference held November 11, 1782, it was 
agreed to elect four deacons, two for each district, and a 
committee was appointed to draw up regulations for said 
office. At the next conference the following report of the 
committee was adopted : "(i) In each district two per- 
sons shall be elected as deacons. (2) The main rule for 
the guidance of the deacons shall be the ten command- 
ments. (3) Attention must be paid by said deacons to all 
classes, the young and the old, alike. (4) In case of com- 
plaint by members, the deacons must see that the com- 
plainants themselves fulfill their duties. (5) They are 

' Hosensack Academy. 
''■Mercersburg Review^ July, 1870. 

Incorporation. 87 

not to give judgment in any case until they have heard 
both sides of the case. (6) The deacons are to be no 
respecters of persons. (7) Offenses of a private nature 
should be adjusted as quietly as possible. 

At the fall conference, 1798, it was agreed that three 
deacons instead of two, should be elected for each district 
and that the oldest in office should be ineligible for one year. 
The latter provision was cancelled in 1803. The expected 
happened and the burden of the work was thrown upon a 
few members who were reelected from year to year. On 
account of the frequent reelection of the same officers, a 
rule was adopted in 1857 by which a deacon could not be 
his own successor. The spirit of the rule was carried still 
farther by a resolution of 1888 according to which a 
deacon at the close of his term of office is ineligible for 
three years. The deacons are the regular channels for at- 
tending to the temporal affairs of the church, and are set 
as watchers to keep guard over the lives of the members. 

Incorporation. — The school trustees held the property 
used by the Schwenkfelders in the furtherance of their 
educational enterprise and naturally became the custodians 
of the property when they began to build houses of wor- 
ship. When in 1838 the Flinn will contest was forced on 
the Society or more particularly on the " Charity Fund," 
the argument was used that no such body as the " Society 
of Schwenkfelders " legally existed and that therefore all 
bequests to the said fund were null and void. The de- 
fense was that such society had existed for a hundred 
years and that they were well known and the only body 
known by that name. To remedy the defect and insure a 
legal holding and transferring of property, the trustees and 
treasurers of the Charity and the Literary Funds were in- 
corporated under the style and title of " The Managers of 

88 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

the Literary and Charitable Funds of the Society of 
•Schwenkfelders." The exigencies connected with mission 
work developed a necessity of amending the said char- 
ter which was accordingly done in 1897 with the purpose 
t)f adapting it to the changed conditions and requirements. 
The Charity Fund. — The Schwenkfelders came to this 
country poor and had to struggle for a living but they never 
allowed those to suffer with whom they were thrown in 
church relationship. The raising of money to help a 
needy brother in 1768 occasioned the founding of the 
Charity Fund in 1774. The caring for the poor, the suf- 
fering and the unfortunate being naturally one of the 
duties of a Christian church, the fund was appropriately 
assumed by the society at its organization. In defining 
the scope of the fund in 1789, it was agreed that the fund 
was to be devoted to the alleviation of the condition of the 
poor and to other worthy causes. In the year 1790 each 
district began to elect its own treasurer of the fund and 
this has been the case since. In the spring conference, 
1815, it was agreed that aid might and should be given to 
the poor even if not connected with the society. Ed- 
mund Flinn, who died in 1836, bequeathed a portion of 
his estate to the fund. The will being contested, litigation 
followed. A charter was secured as stated above ; the 
will was sustained and in 1845 the fund finally received 
the bequest. In 1855 it was agreed to give money out of 
the fund to the ministers to be distributed as they saw 
fit among the poor by way of charity. This regulation 
happily did not become a custom. By resolution it was 
later agreed to pay out of the Charity Fund the bills 
for medical attendance on ministers and the expenses in- 
curred in repairing church buildings. The scope of the 
fund was widened still further by the resolution of 1890 
















Mission Work. 89 

according to which the deacons have the right to appro- 
priate the unexpended interest each year for general 
church purposes. The fund was raised by Sabbath col- 
lections, bequests, thank offerings, interest, sale of books, 
donations, etc. 

Board of Publication. — This board was created at the 
adoption of the Fornmla of Government and sprang out 
of the committee for the publication of the Corf us Schiuenk- 
feldianorum. Prior to this the publication of books was 
attended to by special committees appointed for such pur- 
pose. A few publications were issued by private enter- 
prise, and later assumed by the society. 

Missions. — In mission work the Schwenkfelders as a 
body have proportionately not accomplished the amount 
of work done by other religious societies. Poverty, loca- 
tion and the treatment received at the hands of others may 
in part account for this. Neither have they heralded their 
deeds abroad nor received credit for what they did through 
various other denominational channels. As a body they 
raised money for Bible societies, tract societies, educa- 
tional purposes and mission boards irrespective of sectarian 
lines. As individuals they gave succor to many a worthy 
cause without letting the one hand know what the other 
was doing. By the incorporation of the Mission Board, 
renewed impetus was given to mission labors, and a chan- 
nel afforded by which the gifts of members to such cause 
may receive proper credit and the whole effort be systema- 
tized. Though only called into existence as late as 1895, 
the board has already become the arm for reaching out 
and building up the First Schwenkfelder Church of Phila- 
delphia, the first mission of the church, organized De- 
cember, 1898. It is also conducting work in China, India 
and Armenia. 

go The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

Literary Fund. — The system of schools inaugurated 
in 1764 became a part of the work of the Society. The 
school plan will be considered in a subsequent chapter 
(Chapter IX.). By conference action 1823, the system was 
placed directly in the hands of the society, all members 
being eligible as trustees and having the right of voting. 
The fund was thereafter devoted to the repairing of the 
school-houses, the education of poor children and other 
benevolent purposes. As thus reorganized the fund has 
been known in later years as the Literary Fund devoted 
mainly to the publication of books and tracts. 

Secret Societies. — In reference to secret societies, it may 
be in place to remark that the whole trend of the life and 
doctrine of the Schwenkfelder faith is opposed to the very 
idea and spirit of secresy, to the taking of all oaths, to the 
unchristian rules regulating their membership and adminis- 
tration of funds. At the fall conference, 1820, in con- 
formity with the spirit of the times then prevalent the 
question was raised " whether, on account of the con- 
tinued spread of the so-called order of Free-Masons, it 
is not necessary to indicate the sense of the society in 
reference to such societies for the sake of our mem- 
bers and our children." The following resolution was 
accordingly adopted : " Since the order of Free-Masons is 
clothed in mystery and in many dark, typical and curi- 
ous customs and much that is offensive is presented in 
their processions and in the bearing of their members, and 
since we are directed by the Bible and the writings of the 
Fathers away from sin to our salvation and Saviour, Jesus 
Christ, we must in the highest degree disapprove their 
course if any of our members bind themselves by oaths to 
such orders, and their course must be regarded as imper- 
tinent behavior and we would herewith exhort all to keep 

Freemasonry Denounced. 91 

aloof from the same and on the contrary abide by Paul's 
word, ' mind not high things, but condescend to men of low 
estate.'" In 185 1 the following was adopted : " Resolved, 
further, that it is contrary to and against the doctrine and 
confession of this church that any member should connect 
himself with any such order or with any secret society as, 
for example, the Order of Free-Masons, Odd Fellows and 
the like." After considerable discussion the General Con- 
ference of 1897 agreed on a statement embodying the 
earlier position and giving more explicit reasons for the 

Marriage Regulations. — The following regulations re- 
lating to marriage were adopted at the fall conference, 
1783. (i) The contracting parties must both be of our 
own confession. (2) The consent of parents or guardians 
on both sides must be secured. (3) The groom is to an- 
nounce his intentions to one of the ministers, who is to in- 
quire whether conditions one and two have been complied 
with, whether both have become members of the society, and 
whether they are willing to help to advance the interests 
of the society. Ministers have the right to refer the groom 
to the deacon and he to the society if the answers are not 
satisfactory. (4) Such persons are to be instructed in 
Christian doctrine. (5) Bans shall be published. It was 
also resolved that in case the bride did not belong to the 
society the groom was to try to persuade her to become a 
member, and if she did not, the ministers were not to per- 
form the marriage ceremony. The following year, at the 
request of the society, Christopher Schultz drew up a form of 
betrothal that might be recommended to the young. The 
society was opposed to the intermarriage of those who are 
closely related and at various times had occasion to take 
up cases for consideration where the young failed to keep 

92 The Pennsylvania- Gertnan Society. 

this in mind. The rules and customs relating to marriage 
and admission of members so frequently led the young to 
put off the joining of church until they expected to be 
joined in marriage that the matter on several occasions 
became the subject of discussion in general conferences. 
In 1827 the following resolution was adopted: "When a 
person or persons of our confession or members of our so- 
ciety have been married by ministers not of our society and 
have afterward expressed sorrow for such step to a min- 
ister or deacon, it shall become the duty of the ministers to 
ask such party in public meeting whether he is still sorry 
for such step, and if a satisfactory answer is received such 
party shall not be excluded from membership." In 185 1 
the question of " mixed marriages" was again raised and 
it was resolved that, according to the doctrines maintained 
by the society, both parties ought to belong to the same 
faith. In 1866 it was agreed to permit the performance of 
the marriage ceremony by ministers without publishing the 
bans, if one or both parties did not belong to the society, 
but to require the same in all other cases. The custom be- 
came a dead letter without conference action about the 
year 1877. The restrictions and regulations thus imposed 
at various times were gradually moderated or abandoned, 
so that many became a dead letter long before the revision 
of 1897. 

Church Discipline. — The very object of the organiza- 
tion included the idea of discipline and the members would 
have been grossly derelict in their professed purposes as a 
society if they had paid no attention to the faults of their 
erring brethren. In 1784 it was resolved that members 
who were guilty of such excesses or vices as dancing, 
swearing, drinking, gambling, etc., were to be reproved 
publicly and were to make public confession that they had 

Church Discipline. 93 

done wrong, that they were sorry for the same, that they 
asked pardon and would promise to avoid such sins in the 
future. In 1797 it was agreed that members who failed to 
pay their debts excluded themselves by their own conduct 
from the rights of membership. Hence they could be 
treated as non-members and might be sued at law. The 
church had its cases of discipline like other churches ; the 
members erred in their ways as do those of other confes- 
sions. Many of these failings have been covered by the 
mantle of the past and the charitable hearts of the mem- 
bers blotted out the record of these shortcomings by a 
resolution adopted in 1805, that all reference in the min- 
utes to former cases of discipline was to be stricken out 
and that in future such cases were not to be recorded. 
Work of a disciplinary character by deacons was thus con- 
signed 10 oblivion and can not be referred to for prec- 
edence. Later on, however, the secretaries made such 
direct reference in their minutes to persons involved in 
discipline that it becomes easy to identify the parties under 
consideration. Cases of drunkenness, strife between mem- 
bers, improper use of money, unjust settlement of estates, 
fraud, etc., are noted in the minutes and in a few instances 
were continued from conference to conference. In these 
cases the action was calm, firm, charitable, deliberate. As 
a final resort after the failure of efforts at redemption, 
membership was cancelled. If those whose names were 
thus cancelled afterwards mended their ways, they were 
on proper expressions of penitence and confession received 
again. In the year 1846 the question was raised whether 
it would not be proper to substitute confession in conference 
for confession in open meeting before the society which 
had been the custom since 1784 but no change was effected. 
In 1852, however, a modification was brought about. It 

94 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

was then unanimously resolved that, in cases of discipline 
where the transgression does not bring a stain upon the 
whole society, and the transgressor after due exhortation 
professes proper penitence for his errors, no public confes- 
sion should be required, but that if on account of the posi- 
tion assumed by the transgressor the matter had to be 
brought before the conference, public confession should be 
required. This regulation was amended in 1865 so that 
public announcement was to be made in case of private 
confession. The deacons were the ordinary channel 
through which the church administered its cases of disci- 
pline. At times committees were appointed to hear and 
adjust cases or report the same to conference. 

Chu7'ch Business. — In the transaction of business as a 
society, no distinction was or is made by Schwenkfel- 
ders, between minister and layman, all having equal rights 
and privileges. Regular general conferences have always 
been held twice each year and special conferences as occa- 
sion required. District conferences met from time to 
time but seemingly no clear limitation of rights was made 
between the general and district conference. A moderator 
and a secretary for each district were elected at the general 
conference who usually, through reelection, served many 
years in succession. The conferences were and are purely 
democratic in theory, but in practice neither the young 
male nor the female members seemingly took any great 
part in the deliberations, during the early days of the 
organization. In the early minutes one reads that the 
Uaus-vdter met and in the Constitution and By-Laws 
of 185 1 that the ministers are to be elected by the Haus- 
vdter. This term should mean head of a house, but it 
seems to have been used in the sense of male mem- 
bers. It was made to mean members by the Constitution 

Schwenkfeldcr Costume. 95 

and By-Laws of 1851 and male members by the English 
translation of the same in 1888. By the Formula of 1898 
all members have equal rights and privileges. With re- 
spect to the transaction of business the following items 
may be noted. In 1782 it was agreed that it should be 
the duty of members to report to the secretary all subjects 
that they wished to have discussed at conference. Voting 
by ballot was agreed upon in 1783 with the proviso that 
the voting was to be secret and that those who were not in 
attendance at any particular conference might send their 
1 allots. A resolution was adopted calling upon the mod- 
erator to make an address appropriate to the occasion, a sum- 
mary of which was to be inserted in the minutes. In 1815 
a question arose concerning the taking of testimony from 
parties who were not members of the society. It was 
agreed that such taking of testimony should be permissible 
but that such witnesses should not be admitted to the con- 
ference. At the conference in October, 1840, the custom of 
opening the session with prayer was made by resolution the 
established rule. At the fall conference, 1849, ^^ ques- 
tion was raised whether the members were sufficiently ac- 
quainted with the constitution and regulations of the society 
and whether some persons might perhaps not have failed 
to become members through lack of such information. 
Accordingly, Reverend Joshua Schultz was authorized to 
prepare for publication a summary of the laws and regula- 
tions in force which was published under the title. Consti- 
tution and By-Laws of the Schwenkf cider Society^ 18^1. 
Clothing. — The subject of clothing is a comparatively 
wide one and affords interesting material. The matter 
has been frequently discussed in public and in private, 
and has led to many a misunderstanding and censorious 
word. Individuals have run to extremes, but the confer- 

^6 The Pen7isylvania- German Society. 

ences have as a rule been moderate in expression of 
opinion. In 1786 the following regulations were made 
with respect to clothing : (i) To discountenance all new 
modes, goods and styles that evidently only serve to clothe 
oneself in an extravagant and shameless manner to draw 
attention and to cultiv.ate pride. (2) To permit members 
to use such styles in their clothing as are used generally 
by the good people of the community, forbidding unjust 
criticism of those who saw fit to adopt what all the com- 
mon people of the vicinity were using. (3) To encourage 
the use of home-made clothing, of what members can 
raise and prepare for themselves. In 1842, after consid- 
erable discussion, the rules as given in the Constitution and 
By-Laws oj" i8ji, were adopted as follows: '* In order 
that with the mode of dress there may be no abuse prac- 
ticed, it must be (i) comfortable, protecting both the body 
and the health, (2) it must be adapted to prevent evil desires, 
that those members are thereby covered whose sight might 
stir up impure desires. It may (3) be suitable to one's 
condition, that is, one may wear such clothing as other 
Christian and reasonable people of our condition, which 
best indicate and promote purity and humility. A Chris- 
tian may (4) according to the circumstances of the times 
arrange his clothing, that he may for example go forth 
on a festival day different than upon a time of mourning. 
(5) He may also adapt himself to the custom of the time 
and place when such custom does not contain in itself 
anything that is sinful and does not conflict with pro- 
priety of conduct and decency, and whilst he does not 
place any holiness in this that he wears the old style of 
clothing, he nevertheless should guard against, at the same 
time, imitating all the new styles and much less will he 
make it his business to introduce new styles. They fol- 
lowed Pope's famous rule : 

SchwenJif elder Calligraphy 

\ \\ \ \ i ii i ii m il l J* .i ll iii u ii j" ''' ". J!" L_ ''>' ■ ' """w iiw m ii iii -Lii -j^. ., - ... 

t)fi<V f!f iif^/ .^(iljtir "5d' ^)i#njn)fn ^*fi/ 

y>'i> .^ff/ '^yt^T^w^ ^vic,: !>;/, 


PvN^p ;»Jr((t {;n*f IjcK .>(! |iriij)<'ii miO |cj)mcr 









98 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

" In words, as fashions, the same rule will hold ; 
Alike fantastic, if too new of old ; 
Be not the first by whom the new are tried. 
Nor yet the last to lay the old aside." 

It is probable that no attempt was at any time made to 
prescribe any religious garb or dress for the members, 
although custom had considerable influence over them 
even in this respect, and they seemingly were known by 
their clothing. 

Memorial Day. — At the organization in 1782, the offi- 
ciating at memorial days, observed since 1734, was by vote 
made a regular duty of the ministers, the distinctive reli- 
gious tone of the services being thus preserved. Since 
1 791 the exercises with one exception have been held al- 
ternately in the meeting houses in the so-called Upper and 
Lower districts, on the twenty-fourth of September or on 
the twenty-fifth, if the twenty-fourth fell on Sunday. On 
account of having forenoon and afternoon sessions, pro- 
vision for dinner at the house of worship has been made each 
year, presumably from the earliest observance of the day, 
so that worshippers would not be compelled to return to 
their homes for the noonday meal. After dismission the 
benches were covered with pure white linen, and on the 
table thus hurriedly prepared a simple repast of bread, 
butter and apple butter was soon spread and served, each 
helping himself with due decorum, and always heartily 
enjoyed. The exercises on these days have uniformly 
been of a devotional nature. The singing of hymns, the 
offering of prayers, the delivery of one or more sermons, 
the recounting of the cause of the observance of the day 
have always been a part of the program. In recent years 
there has been a tendency to widen the scope and influence 
of the day by trying to secure for it a more general attend- 
ance by descsendants irrepective of church connections. 

Use of the Sacraments. 99 

The Sacraments. — A few words seem in place in this 
connection bearing on the use or non-use of the sacra- 
ments among the Schwenkfelders. In Europe they did 
not celebrate the sacraments because the church and the 
state would not allow them. Immediately after the migration 
they were in such a disorganized condition that the institu- 
tion of such an important step could not be thought of. 
The lack of complete organization before 1782 was re- 
garded a valid reason for not instituting the sacraments. 
This non-use had become a fixed and deeply-rooted habit 
at the time of the organization, the influence of which has 
scarcely disappeared at the present day. The position of 
the people on this subject at the time'^of the organization 
is indicated by the following facts. Christopher Schultz 
issued the first edition of his catechism in 1763. In revis- 
ing it he had the advice of all the Schwenkfelders and the 
advantage of the use of it for twenty years. In the second 
edition, issued 1784, he answered affirmatively the follow- 
ing question, not found in the first edition : Does baptism, 
therefore, belong to the proper service of the gospel? In 
his Compendium or Glaubcnslchre^ Christopher Schultz, 
at the close of the discussion of the sacraments of the 
New Testament, says: "We should carefully guard our- 
selves against all abuse of this sacred institution in order 
that we may not fall under the condemnation of the Lord. 
Inattention to the same must be displeasing to the Lord 
and contrary to His will of love, since He well knew what 
is good and wholesome for us and serviceable to the in- 
crease of His Kingdom and Christian Communion." Di- 
rectly after the organization in 1782, the ministers were 
instructed to preach several sermons each year on the sac- 
raments. In response to this, Christopher Kriebel preached 
a series of twenty sermons, two each year, on Baptism and 

lOO The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

the Lord's Supper. George Kriebel preached a like series 
and Christopher Schultz also began a series. John Schultz 
wrote a letter which was published in a German paper of 
the year 1820, from which the following words are quoted : 
*' That the sacraments are not outwardly observed results 
mainly from the cause that our forefathers in Germany did 
not have the freedom to gather a church and observe them 
as they deemed proper. On their grievous journey from 
Silesia to Saxony and thence across Holland and the sea 
and during the first years in this country, the subject was 
not to be thought of. They thus had to work their way 
through for more than 200 years without such holy ser- 
vices. At their closer organization in 1782, omission had 
become custom that has continued since, but we flatter our- 
selves with the hope that such things may in the future not 
be left out of consideration." About the year 1840, a con- 
siderable discussion arose about the institution of the sac- 
raments which finally led to the resolution that the minis- 
ters should have the right to baptize and hold communion 
with all the believers (members) who sincerely desired the 
same. During the years 1856-58, another period of dis- 
cussion manifested itself, the outcome of which was that 
the ministers were appointed a committee to draw up rules 
and regulations for the proper observance of the sacra- 
ments. The committee met, and after some effort, com- 
promised on a report, and then the matter came to a rest 
again. Agitation started up anew about the year 1874, 
which led to the publishing of the committee report of 
1858 and of two sermons by Weiss and Hoffman and 
finally resulted in the institution of the sacraments in the 
Lower District at the private house of Anthony K. Heebner 
in 1877. A wave of earnest discussion, argument and re- 
crimination followed which occasioned the appointment of 

Present Modes of Activity. loi 

a compromise committee in 1888. This committee went 
to work, toiled on and finally made its report, which was 
adopted and printed in 1894. By virtue of the committee 
report, opportunity was given in the Upper District for bap- 
tism and communion and has been regularly continued 
since. The charge has often been made that the Schwenk- 
felders are opposed to the sacraments, but the charge can 
not be substantiated. The published writings, the many 
unpublished manuscripts, the action of conferences, veri- 
fied traditions, are all evidence to the contrary. Many a 
vigorous protest may be found against the abuse of the 
sacraments in these references, but against the proper use 
thereof none whatever. The fact is not overlooked that 
all along individuals have maintained the views of the 
Friends about the use of externals, but these never repre- 
sented the consensus of opinion of their fellow-members 
as a body. 

It will not be amiss to close this chapter by quoting the 
following from a recent tract : 

"Present Modes of Activity. 

"I. The ministry — jealously guarded as to purity of 
doctrine of incumbents by the members of the churches. 

*' 2. Public worship — evangelical, simple, flexible as to 
time and manner. 

"3. Sunday-schools — maintained since the migration in 


"4. Catechetical instruction — adapted to train the young 

in the doctrines of the church. 

** 5. Charity Fund — founded in 1774, through which the 
church has always cared for its unfortunate members. 

"6. Perkiomen Seminary — a preparatory school for 
both sexes. 


The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

"7. Board of Missions — incorporated in 1895. 

"8. Board of Publication — the publishing medium, con- 
ducting the work on the Corpus Schwenkfeldianoru^n. 

"9. Ladies' Aid Societies — organized to direct and 
undertake certain lines of charitable work. 

"10. Christian Endeavor Societies — working in har- 
mony with the United Society." 


The Relation Between the Schwenkfelders'^and 
zinzendorf in pennsylvania. 

Y object in this chapter will 
i^ be to summarize the chief 
items of interest relating 
to the connection between 
Count Zinzendorf as their 
former friend in need and 
the Schwenkfelders after 
their migration in 1734. 
The earlier experiences 
have been touched upon in 
a different connection. For a discussion of the general 
development of Moravian church life in America, the 
kind reader is referred to special books on the subject. 

In Memorials of the Moravian Churchy Vol. I., page 
157, the statement is made that " George Bonisch, Christo- 
pher Baus and Christopher Wiegner arrived at Philadel- 
phia on the St. Andrew, Captain Stedman, September 22, 
1734. This vessel brought the Schwenkfelders whom 
Zinzendorf had received at Berthelsdorf, on their banish- 


104 '^^^'^ Pennsylvania-German Society. 

ment from Silesia. Bonisch accompanied them to Penn- 
sylvania at their request and during their stay resided at 
Wiegner's." These are the three to whom Cranz refers 
in his history in these words : " Three brothers were sent 
with them (the Schwenkfelders) who at the request of 
them were to aid in caring for the temporal and spiritual 
welfare of the Schwenkfelders." Recognition of such a 
mission and request in the writings of the Schwenkfelders 
has not been brought to light. Augustus Gottlieb Span- 
genberg, A.M., of the University of Jena, later Bishop of 
the Moravian Church, than whom Count Zinzendorf alone 
stood higher in the councils of the Moravian Church, had 
expected to accompany the Schwenkfelders because he 
had noticed in them an earnest Christian spirit, but when 
knowledge came that they were to go to Pennsylvania and 
not to Georgia as he himself had hoped, Spangenberg 
was delegated to conduct a company of Moravian emigrants 
to Georgia. While Schwenkfelders were founding new 
homes in Pennsylvania, Spangenberg was caring for the 
band of Moravian immigrants who had arrived in Savan- 
nah, March, 1735. After he had established the in- 
fant colony and had been ordained a presbyter of the 
Moravian Church by Bishop Nitschman who had recently 
arrived in the colony of Georgia, he left March 15, 1736, 
with letters of recommendation from Governor Oglethorpe 
to Thomas Penn to take up his mission proper in Pennsyl- 
vania. Christopher Wiegner must have been expecting 
him on his farm at Towamencin about this time. He 
wrote in his diary, April 3 : "I came home tired from 
plowing but said that if Spangenberg were in the city, I 
would go that night to see him." The next day Wiegner 
said he must come. Hardly had he said this when in 
stepped Spangenberg and surprised them as the family 



Bishof David Nitchman. 105 

sat at the dinner table. From this time on until his recall 
to Europe in 1739 he made his home with Wiegner, going 
away of course for longer and shorter periods on account 
of his duties as demands came upon him. 

The object of the coming of Spangenberg, as of 
Wiegner, Bans and Bonisch, was in part at least to bring 
the Schwenkfelders over to the Moravian faith. On the 
day following his arrival he wrote: "I will visit the 
people, offer them my peace, place myself at their service, 
hear, ask and answer as it may please them, wishing that 
God Himself may open a door." During his stay he would, 
as opportunity presented itself, take part in the operations 
of the farm. Reichel says: "He took many practical 
lessons in ploughing, threshing and other agricultural ele- 
ments, by which he became well qualified for future use- 
fulness in the economies of Bethlehem and Nazareth." To 
his dying day he looked back with pleasure to the happy 
and peaceful days spent on the Wiegner farm. Wiegner 
makes many references to these experiences to which space 
permits but fragmentary reference. 

On the fifth of May, 1736, Bishop David Nitschman 
arrived and on the eighth went to " Cainstook " accom- 
panied by Spangenberg. The Bishop left again on the 
twenty-second of May. About the middle of the month 
Spangenberg wrote that the Schwenkfelders who lived 
greatl}'^ scattered received him m love on his visits and that 
he hoped that many might be converted. Wiegner relates 
that they were at Kriebel's (probably Melchior Kriebel's) 
on the twentieth of June, 1736, and that Spangenberg 
spoke and Bonisch prayed. George Weiss soon called 
at their home and remonstrated with them saying that " we 
disturbed them and that we should let them alone, that 
they would leave us alone, that w.e were not agreed and 

io6 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

that he knew of many people who prayed and acted very 
earnestly of whom terrible things were heard later ; and 
that it was in vain to unite the Schwenkfelders and the Mora- 
vians. * * * Because Spangenberg spoke very mildly 
and peaceably we would have to wait a few years to see 
whether he would continue thus." On the ninth of July, 
Weiss made a call at Wiegner's and had an extended 
discussion of doctrinal points with Spangenberg and 
they seem to have been quite friendly. The next day 
Spangenberg left for St. Thomas deputized by Nitsch- 
man to hold a visitation. Thus he was called away from 
his work for a season. He returned in November, fol- 

In February, 1737, George Neisser arrived at Wiegner's. 
He had been deputized by the brethren in Georgia to 
report their distress to Spangenberg and to urge him to 
repair to London to lay their grievances before the 
" Trustees for the Colony of Georgia." Wiegner relates 
that he and Spangenberg early in March discussed the 
advisability of visiting Georgia, that in April after consulta- 
tion, the Schwenkfelders advised his going, upon which he 
made up his mind to go. On the twenty-ninth of April, 
Weiss and Spangenberg started afoot for Germantown, 
arriving there about midnight. Wiegner records thanks 
for the blessed communion on the way. In May, Spangen- 
berg sailed for Georgia accompanied by John Eckstein. 
In August, Wiegner wrote a letter to Count Zinzendorf in 
which he related Spangenberg's affairs and requested 
instruction concerning certain letters and the standing of 
George Bonisch, since it was good neither for him nor 
for the others that he did not know how long he was to 
stay. He also spoke of the kind reception given to 
Spangenberg by the Schwenkfelders. 

Spangenberg^s Return. 107 

Spangenberg returned from Georgia to Wiegner's early 
in September, 1737. In December the two went to Phil- 
adelphia. They seem to have had a warm discussion, 
Spangenberg wanting to start special regulations in exter- 
nal matters, like eating, sleeping and clothing. Wiegner 
wrote: "God gave grace that we could understand each 
other, and Spangenberg made promises and we loved each 
other and rejoiced together." On the thirtieth of Decem- 
ber Wiegner entered this interesting note in his diary : 
" Started on our journey. Neither of us felt well, yet we 
had a prompting towards such a journey. The Lord made 
all things work together for the best. Until we came to 
the Swamp, we were in great distress spiritually. We 
sang and prayed in our misery and comforted eath other 
and the grace of love and communion manifested itself 
strongly on the whole journey." On the seventh of Janu- 
ary they came back from the visit in blessing and peace. 
It is probably with reference to this trip that George Neisser 
says : '* Spangenberg and Christopher Wiegner at one time 
made a visitation to Falckner Swamp, Oley and Cones- 
toga among the Ephrata brethren and among the so-called 
' New-mooners ' in Conestoga Swamp with John Zimmer- 
man and found many upright souls, but greatly divided 
with respect to theories and non-essentials." 

Wiegner made the following entry in his diary January 
19, 1738: "Attended services at M. Kriebel's. George 
Weiss said the Bible was a sealed book and was only for 
the s?cinis [Heilig-recofjwiandirte) — hence his 1,500 hymns 
and other literature. This affected me so much that I 
made a loud exclamation and Br. Sp. (Brother Spangen- 
berg) did the same which stirred up considerable uproar. 
George Weiss wrote a letter to which we replied again." 
This stormy meeting meant much. An extensive corre- 

io8 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

spondence followed. It was more than a mere clashing be- 
tween Weiss and Spangenberg. It was rather a clashing 
between two great systems of thought — Weiss defending 
Casper Schwenkfeld and Spangenberg representing Zin- 
zendorf, a professed adherent of the Lutheran faith, al- 
though the great defender of the Moravians. The fol- 
lowing April Wiegner wrote: *' George Weiss rejects 
us," and Spangenberg wrote : "The Schwenkf elders form 
themselves wholly into a sect and completely close them- 
selves against all others who do not approve of their 
cause, whereby consciences are bound and the spirit of 
Christ is quenched. I can reject no brother nor separate 
myself from him to win others and be a means of salvation 
to them. The Lord will show what the outcome will be. 
We do not say much, but have expressed ourselves both 
orally and in writing." Reichel says : " In 1738, when visit- 
ing theSchwenkfeldersforthe third time, he {^Spangenberg) 
complained of their exclusive sectarian spirit, by which the 
consciences are burdened ; but it is still more likely that 
Spangenberg, ' still too learned to be an apostle ' (as Zin- 
zendorf expressed it) and lacking experience, did not al- 
ways meet them, and especially their minister, George 
Weiss, with that Christian candor and liberality which 
alone awakens confidence, and which in later years was 
the brightest ornament of Bro. Spangenberg's career." 
In Fresenius we find these words : "At first for a consid- 
erable time Spangenberg attended their meetings, adopted 
their mode of dress, associated much with them, and they 
permitted this for a time, although they knew his principles 
while yet in the old country, but they were disinclined to 
enter into a more intimate familiarity with and submission 
to him, until at last George Weiss, their preacher, who was 
not at all inclined to adopt the Herrnhuter form, and espe 

The Ski f pack Brethren, 109 

daily not their outward ceremonies and manner of teach- 
ing, forbade his further teaching or acting in their meet- 

George Neisser, who lived with Wiegner for a while, 
says: *' Through condescendence towards the Schwenk- 
felders the whole company (Wiegner, Spangenberg and 
the others at Wiegner's house) attended their services and 
in clothing and other matters adapted themselves to them. 
But when it was perceived that this condescension and 
other inducements to love as well as the efforts to win 
them would bear no fruit, a gradual withdrawal took 
place." Sunday services were then instituted at Wieg- 
ner's, to which particularly on festival occasions and in 
summer time there came among others : From Skip- 
pack : Heinrich Frey, Johannes Kooken, George Merkel, 
Christian Weber, Jost Schmidt, Willhelm Bossens, Jost 
Becker ; from Friedrichstown (Frederick Township) : 
Heinrich Antes, Wilhelm Frey, George Stiefel, Heinrich 
Holstein, Andreas Frey ; from Matetsche (Methacton) : 
Matthias Gmelen, Abraham Wagner ; from Oley : John 
Bertolet, Franz Ritter and Wilhelm Pott ; from German- 
town : Johannes Bechtel, Johann Adam Gruber, Blasius 
Mackinet and George Benzel. Monthly conferences were 
also held, which continued until 1740. It was probably 
in this connection that the name "The Associated Breth- 
ren of the Skippack" arose. 

On the fifteenth of March, 1739, Wiegner wrote that 
Spangenberg had received a call to Germany and that 
they were thus placed in great straits ( Wir stehen sehr in 
der enge). The following August, Spangenberg accord- 
ing to Reichel left for Europe without having had the 
pleasure of seeing much fruit for his labors. It used to be 
said that he came to Pennsylvania a very wise man, but 

no The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

had returned a much wiser man. Before his return he 
wrote : " My plan is to declare freely to all that in Christ 
Jesus naught but a new creature avails, such a one we 
will consider a brother ; others are but men of the world 
and cannot stand before God. We will not concern our- 
selves whether a man has a particular name but whether 
he believes on the Lord Jesus Christ and walks in the law 
of love." These words can easily be duplicated from the 
writings of Casper Schwenkfeld. The words do honor 
to any follower of the Lord. One might almost be tempted 
to ask, Did a Schwenkfelder utter these words? In 
fact we find that Zinzendorf told Eckstein that Spang- 
enberg was a Schwenkfelder. What he meant by such 
a statement is not made clear. Isaac Schultz wrote in 
1839 *^^^ Spangenberg loved and read Schwenkfeld's writ- 
ings, and that he would have remained with his friends 
if he had not been called away. Verification of this state- 
ment has not been possible from other sources. What 
would have been the result if he had not been called away? 
What would have been the outcome if George Weiss had 
been a mercenary, and sought to draw the Associated 
Brethren of the Skippack into the Schwenkfelder fold? 
April 25, 1740, the remnant of the Moravian colony in 
Georgia came to Philadelphia on board of the sloop 
Savanna with Whitefield, the well-known leader of the 
Methodists. Reichel says: "They were greatly disap- 
pointed at not finding either Spangenberg, who had left 
for Europe or Bishop Nitschman, whose early arrival was 
expected. They went to Wiegner's, next to Henry Antes 
and then back again to Germantown." Meanwhile Mr. 
Whitefield had bought 5,000 acres of land in Northampton 
County for the purpose of erecting a school for negroes. 
On May 5, he came to Wiegner's plantation in Skippack 

Zinzendorf s Zeal. Ill 

to see Peter Bohler concerning the intended building. 
Many people assembled to see and hear the famous Mr. 
Whitefield, who preached to them in English followed 
b}'' Peter Bohler in a German address. In Whitefield's 
journal are found these words : "Preached at Skippack 
sixteen miles from Montgomery where the Dutch people 
live. It was seemingly a ver}'' wilderness part of the coun- 
try ; but there were not less I believe than 2,000 hearers." 
Wiegner's diary closes with April, 1739, so that it furnishes 
no information concerning this or subsequent visits or affairs. 
From other sources we learn, however, that Eschenbach, 
Ranch, Anne Nitschmann, Molter, Zeisberger and other 
Moravians enjoyed the hospitality of the home of Chris- 
topher Wiegner, his sister and mother. 

Zinzendorf's missionary zeal is appropriately expressed 
in his own words of August, 1741 : " I am destined by the 
Lord to proclaim the message of the death and blood of 
Jesus." He longed to preach Christ crucified and to 
build up a true church unto the Lord. Reichel says : 
"Zinzendorf was of the opinion that the best field for 
unrestrained general activity for the Kingdom of God 
would be in Pennsylvania ; for in a country and among a 
people where there were as yet no ecclesiastical organiza- 
tions whatever there could not be hindrances such as he 
met elsewhere — hindrances founded upon and emanating 
from ecclesiastical usages and customs of old standing. 
Therefore if anywhere on earth his ideal of ' a church of 
God in the Spirit' could be realized, Pennsylvania, he 
thought, might be that countr3^" With this in mind he 
came to Pennsylvania in December, 1741, to labor among 
the diverse churches and sects scattered throughout Penn- 
sylvania. Within ten days after his arrival he called on 
Wiegner and preached a sermon on John III. 16 and 

112 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

Matt. XVI. 19 which seems to have given scant satisfac- 
tion. Wiegner's "Associated Brethren of the Skippack" 
probably formed a factor in the count's decision to come 
to Pennsylvania. Hence it was but the natural thing to 
make such a prompt call at Wiegner's home. A few days 
later, December 15, O. S., a call was issued signed by 
Henry Antes one of the frequenters at the meetings at 
Wiegner's for a general meeting at Germantown of mem- 
bers of all denominations " not for the purpose of disputing 
but in order to treat peaceably concerning the most impor- 
tant articles of faith and to ascertain how far they might 
all agree in the most essential points for the purpose of 
promoting mutual love and forbearance." 

In pursuance of the call a synod was therefore held in Ger- 
mantown on New Year's day, O. S. Christopher Wiegner, 
according to some reports, seems to have been one of the 
important members of the gathering. Christopher Saur 
said concerning this synod : " The Schwenkf elders knew 
him (Zinzendorf) and had lived with him. Of these none 
came. Two who lived in Germantown were prevailed 
upon to attend, but when they saw that they were only 
wanted in order that it might be heralded abroad that they 
too had attended they went home." It seems that Saur 
did not class Wiegner as a Schwenkfelder or did not know 
of his attendance. The scant attention given the gathering 
by the Schwenkfelders, the displeasure aroused by their 
not migrating to Georgia originally, the non-responsiveness 
to the labors of Bonisch and Spangenberg, the sly syco- 
phancy of others, probably put Zinzendorf into a frame 
of mind that on slight provocation might lead him to im- 
prudent acts and this indeed happened all too soon. 

On Epiphany, January 6, Zinzendorf preached the 
second time at Wiegner's and was listened to by the 

Controversy. 113 

Schvvenkfelders who rejoiced to see their former guardian 
angel and benefactor. It seems that on the same day 
eight of them called upon him at his house in German- 
town. Both here and at Wiegner's controversy arose. 
What took place was written out by the Schwenkfelders 
and later published. Zinzendorf questioned them con- 
cerning their confession of faith, their organization, their 
hymns and other points. He said Schwenkfeld taught 
error, rejected word and outward things or services, that 
George Weiss led the people around by the nose and 
taught errors, that it was easier to preach to Satan than to 
them, that he had power over them and was bound to save 
their souls, that he would not rest until he had destroyed 
them and torn their children from them, that he would use 
all his powers to tear souls from them and to save the 
children from hell. They politely answered his questions, 
saying among other things: *' After many attacks upon 
us and our truth we left Germany and should it be that 
here also we could not remain in peace, there would no 
doubt be found again some other little spot for us. We do 
not intend to depart from our confession." To say the 
least, Zinzendorf did not show the wisdom of a serpent nor 
the harmlessness of a dove in thus attacking a body of 
people so well spoken of as the Schwenkfelders. A 
few days later he and Bishop Nitschman called upon John 
Eckstein, who had accompanied Spangenberg to Georgia. 
Here the Schwenkfelders were again discussed, Zinzendorf 
reiterating what he had said before to the Schwenkfelders 
while Eckstein defended them, upon which the count became 
quite wrathful, saying that he had power over them and 
that he would pray the Lord to cast them out of his mouth. 
Some time after this Zinzendorf actually consulted a 
magistrate concerning his imagined power over them and 

iiq. The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

was told that if he had paid no ship-passage for them, he 
could have no power over them. What the outcome 
would have been had the passage been paid by the count, 
no one can tell. Would they have been sold as redemp- 
tioners? Would they have gone to Georgia instead of 
Pennsylvania, there to perish as did some of the Moravians ? 
Zinzendorf's course of conduct was adapted to cause per- 
plexity leading to conference and consultation. He was 
continually making threats, seeking, as it appeared to the 
Schwenkfelders, to tempt them to commit some outward act 
against him but they, as was their custom, were seeking as 
much as lay in their power to live at peace with all men 
and particularly with him. 

The second synod met January 14 and 15 at the house 
of George Hiibner in Falckner Swamp. George was a 
son of Doctor Melchior Hiibner who had migrated with 
the Schwenkfelders but who was not in harmony with the 
leaders and was not considered as one of the Schwenk- 
felders at the time of his death in 1738. The son was un- 
doubtedly influenced by the father and thus was probably 
not a strict Schwenkfelder. He as a miller was a business 
partner of Henry Antes and also a considerable land- 
holder. Wiegner attended the synod and was granted the 
freedom of the synods, being one of the members at liberty 
to attend without further notice. The Schwenkfelders 
did not send delegates to this nor to any subsequent synod. 
The tumult incited by Zinzendorf on Epiphany must have 
been noised about and must have aroused attention even 
among the members of the synod and was in itself ample 
excuse for non-attendance. 

At the third conference held in Oley, February 10-12, 
the proposition was made that if the Schwenkfelders had 
any complaints against Brother Ludwig (Zinzendorf) they 
should present themselves at the next synod. 

Pennsylvania Synods. 1 15 

The fourth synod met in Germantown, March 10-12. 
A letter written by Casper Kriebel dated, " Domentz, 
March 7, 1742," replying to one by Christopher Schultz, 
raising the question of making a defense against Zinzen- 
dorf, contained the words : "It is the opinion of myself 
and some others that it is not advisable to attend said con- 
ference. Hitherto we have had nothing to do with him. 
He indeed makes pretensions against us, but these are 
European and not American." According to Reichel, 
" when Zinzendorf entered and found that only those had 
made their appearance who were really one in spirit — the 
Mennonites and Schwenkfelders having sent no deputies 
— he felt that the proper objects of these meetings would 
not be gained and proposed to dissolve the meeting at once, 
but this proposition was overruled by the synod." 

The day previous to the opening of the synod, Wiegner 
and Zinzendorf discussed the Schwenkfelders and Wiegner 
told the count that in certain respects he had labored under 
misapprehensions. The result was a letter by Zinzen- 
dorf dated " Germantown, March 20, 1742," (N. S.) He 
recounted the experiences at the previous Epiphany, tried 
to justify his own conduct, saying among other things : " I 
declared to your attending deputies * * * how I thought 
to proceed. * * * I would fix a time of three months for 
your false teachers, unconverted overseers and blind 
leaders ; if during that time some one who knows the cross 
of Jesus would take you in charge, convert some of you, 
introduce the holy sacraments and thus make you capable 
of the name of a church, then I would have to let you 
stand in the Lord, for you would then be an ordinary 
religion. But in case the heretofore and still existing con- 
fusion should continue and according to your own confes- 
sion to me no one became converted, false doctrine should 

ii6 The Pennsylvania- Ger^nan Society. 

continue in vogue, the sacraments remain absolutely abol- 
ished and when one inquires of you for foundations, 
nothing be left but the bare name of the sect, the par- 
ticular dress and perhaps an empty word sound about the 
dead letter, inner word, spirit and the like ; then rather 
than permit you to become scattered here and there to 
desert and connect with other sects to become false separa- 
tists and thus to permit your entire ruin, I would concern 
myself earnestly about you with this purpose to make a 
beginning while you were here, to visit you specifically, to 
gather and improve you, to remove the hirelings from you 
in case they withstood me, to tear the sheep out of their 
mouths. * * * I therefore wanted to remind you that the 
time is approaching and terminates on the sixth of April, 
when you are again invited to a conference."^ 

To this letter Balzer Hoffman and other sundry friends 
politely replied that they would not attend the conference 
or synod, that they commended themselves to God and that 
they conceded to all the privilege of acting as seemed best 
to them. Zinzendorf replied again as follows : " While I 
hereby charge you publicly before the all-seeing eyes of 
God the Saviour as well as before every honorable man 
that you have committed the spiritual and temporal care of 
your people to me in writing in case you should dwell out- 
side of my territory and particularly outside of Europe and 
indeed partly in naming Pennsylvania. But I do not wish 
to lay the writing before you, because you treat me with 
sophistical artifices and I (the appointee of Jesus as Re- 
former of the Schwenkfelder religion) being obliged to 
proceed apostolically desire that you give me the following 

* "It was an empty threat that these people should fear and at once prostrate 
themselves, for they did not come and paid no attention to his dictatorial coua- 
sels, but remained quietly away from him and since that time he could not 
undertake anything further against them." 

Release of Zinzendorf. 117 

written obligation under your name that until after your 
death you will take the charge upon yourselves ; in that 
event this paper will serve you as a strong obligation on 
my part that I will defer my services as reformer of the 
Schwenkfelder religion until your death, unless it should 
happen that some souls among you would request me to 
perform such service whom I would at all times accept as 
my children," etc. 

The following is the form of release proposed: "We, 
the undersigned, release Count Louis von Zinzendorf in 
the sincerest and most effective manner before God and 
man of and from all temporal and spiritual care of the 
Schwenkfelders in America during the term of our lives." 
The following rejoinder was then given by the Schwenk- 
felders : "Out of veneration for your person we have 
in sincerity replied to all demands heretofore made upon 
us but finding that our simple yet truthful declarations 
are construed as sophistry, we are compelled hereafter 
absolutely to decline to take notice of any and every im- 
portunity that may be made, both written and oral, until 
we are shown that written power of our submission which 
we are said to have executed. It is not the accusation but 
the evidence that proves the case. We do not believe in 
that entrusted instruction from Christ against our religion. 
We decline the demand, we have neither the bestowed nor 
assumed power or arbitrariness to treat with our people in 
the manner indicated ; it would appear neither formal nor 
proper, but rather it would appear foolish. By the help of 
God we shall remain with ours, thank Him for our liberty, 
place our trust in His provident care and commit ourselves 
with all that may impend to Him. For what length of 
time that entrusted reformation is to be suspended does not 
give us any concern. With this simple declaration we 

ii8 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

merely make known that we can not assume, much less 
assent to what we are charged with. We can not imagine 
why such a binding obligation has not been shown ere 
this : as we frankly made known our intentions and com- 
menced our journey publicly." 

At the seventh synod the views of the members were 
expressed concerning the religious state of nine denom- 
inations in Pennsylvania. Of the Schwenkfelders the 
conclusion was in part as follows : " The Schwenkfelders 
so-called are in a lamentable condition. They have no 
system of their own. In Germany they allow their chil- 
dren to be baptized ; here they do not. Those who offered 
to aid them they have rejected. Brother Thurnstein (Zin- 
zendorf) brought with him and beside received here such 
views of them as misled him into a severity which they 
indeed deserved, but which their accusers deserved much 
more. * * * He also sought a release from them show- 
ing that they would decline his duty towards them dur- 
ing their lives ; this they returned unsigned. He has at 
this time a definite assurance from a sufficient number of 
them that they neither need him nor expect to unite with 

The seventh was the last of the synods in which Zin- 
zendorf participated and also marks the time when first 
the Schwenkfelders could feel themselves entirely free 
from the power of Zinzendorf . For sixteen years had they 
in an unorganized condition withstood his efforts at " con- 
version " and successfully stood by the faith of the fathers 
placed in their hands as a sacred trust according to their 
view. A heart of charity will not impugn the motives or 
his love, but perchance may see in him one of God's lambs 
wrapped in wolf's clothing, and actuated by a feudalistic 
spirit entirely foreign to the genius of the church and 
state in Pennsylvania. 

Schivenkf elder vs. Moravian. 


To a Schwenkfelder who fully appreciated his own sys- 
tem of doctrine, it would have seemed preposterous to 
adopt as his spiritual guide and teacher, Zinzendorf who,, 
as report has it, taught that there were but two churches,, 
the Roman Catholic and the Moravian, the former even 
having lost its power, that the children of Moravian par- 
ents did not need regeneration, that baptism of water was 
regeneration, that claimed to be the " appointee of Jesus 
as Reformer of the Schwenkfelder religion." 

To guard against unwarranted inferences it will be in 
place to say in conclusion that the most cordial relation 
has always existed between Schwenkfelders and Mora- 
vians and that it is to be hoped that the same may continue 
in years to come. 


Secular Education among the Schwenkfelders. 

NOWLEDGE is power and its acquisi- 
tion a Christian duty. In studying the 
history of secular education among the 
Schwenkfelders as a body, one finds 
comparatively little material relating 
to the first thirty years after the immi- 
gration. It is evident that the immi- 
grant Schwenkfelders were not of a 
low type of intelligence. Very few of them made their 
*' mark" at the time of their taking the pledge of alle- 
giance. Their religious leaders, Weiss, Hoffman and 
Schultz, probably aided the respective communities in win- 
ning the elements of a practical education in the common 
branches. Christopher Schultz in his Historische An- 
merkungen says that about the year 1764 there was con- 
siderable deliberation with respect to the establishment of 
a school system for and by the Schwenkfelders. The 
necessity for such schools was laid before the heads of 
famiHes in a series of questions. A meeting was there- 
upon held on the first of March, 1764, and money pledged 

( 120 ) 

Articles of Agreement. 121 

for the support of the schools. In June another meeting 
was held when articles of agreement were adopted and the 
system was inaugurated. 

In the deliberations of June, the following principles 
were agreed to, written out quite fully and illustrated by 
references to a number of authorities : 

1. Man by nature is lost, but is intended by God to be 
eternally happy. 

2. It is the duty of parents to bring up their children in 
the fear of God and in useful knowledge. 

3. A system of public schools is necessary to lighten, 
but it can not remove, the duty of parents in this respect. 

4. It is the object of schools to lead children into the 
wisdom of God and the possession of useful knowledge. 

5. Specifically it is their object to educate in godliness, 
learning and virtue. 

6. This principle concerning the object of schools is 
founded on God. 

7. The essential conditions of good schools are com- 
petent teachers, order and regulations, a true fear of God, 
impartation of useful knowledge, care of teachers. 

8. A teacher ought to be godly, educated and of good 

9. A faithful teacher must seek the true welfare of his 

10. It is necessary for parents and teachers to agree as 
to methods to bring about the best results. 

11. The moral training of children must not be over- 

12. The reading of God's Word and the study of the 
catechism should not be omitted from schools. 

13. Reading and writing the English and German 
languages, arithmetic and geography and other useful 
branches should be studied. 

122 The Pennsylvania- Gei'nian Society. 


aor (AnitrioLiimq -d/tJ 

aor ^nicrSaiiiu^ 'd^ 
d^vvvX marten 


Fundamental Articles. 123 

14. Provision should be made for the support of the 

At the time of the adoption of the afore-mentioned princi- 
ples, the following regulations were also adopted : 

Certain Agreements and Fundamental Articles for the 
establishment, support and continuation of a school-system 
in the districts of Skippack and Goshenhoppen as they 
were agreed upon and determined by and between the 
contributors thereto this thirteenth day of June, 1764. 

Whereas, the faithful training of the young in read- 
ing, writing and the study of the languages and useful 
sciences, according to sex, age and standing and their in- 
struction in the principles of morality, virtue and true re- 
ligion contribute very much to the prosperity and welfare 
of every community, which can be accomplished in no 
way better than by the establishment of schools under wise 
and proper regulations adapted to such undertaking and, 

Whereas, the small community of people, known by 
the name " Schwenkfelders " has hitherto been under irreat 
inconvenience for the education of their children in the 
useful elements referred to above through want of well- 
regulated schools ; 

Therefore, they took the matter to heart and met on 
the first day of March, 1764, in Skippack and earnestly 
deliberated how and in what form schools might be estab- 
lished among them whereupon they concluded that it would 
be most convenient to collect and establish a fund from the 
proceeds of which the most, even if not all the expenses 
for the support of such schools could be met, annually 
their deliberations agreeing on the following conditions 
and terms. The above-named took into consideration 
their insignificant numbers and means in comparison with 
the heavy expenses that would be incurred by such schools 

124 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

and concluded that in view of these circumstances, it 
would be advantageous to the encouragement of subscrip- 
tions and the collection of a larger amount to regard the 
sums brought together thus as a loan conditioned as fol- 
lows : The said contributors and subscribers give their 
respective contributions to the fund as a loan for a period 
of sixteen years reckoned from the sixteenth day of May, 
1764. Such sum shall be under the management of cer- 
tain trustees in order that the interest thereof at 5 per cent, 
per annum may be applied to the support of the said 
schools in the hope and trust in divine direction that 
meanwhile such necessary and important undertaking may 
gradually be further encouraged by those favorably in- 
clined and supported in true Christian spirit by gifts and 
loans so that it may be continually strengthened. It is 
their purpose not only to support the said fund according 
to their ability but also to commend the same to their 
friends as best they may from time to time. For it is their 
aim, agreement and intention that as long as there are 
children to be educated and as long as the fund can be 
administered under the manifest favor of God, the said 
fund shall be continued and the whole undertaking shall 
be conducted by God's blessing unalterably according to 
the following regulations. 

Wherefore let all whom it may concern know that we 
the above-mentioned contributors earnestly desire that this 
undertaking may not be hindered or rendered ineffectual 
and that it may be conducted according to principles of 
prudence and discretion. Hence we have agreed upon the 
following fundamental articles, regulations and rules to pro- 
vide a prudent management of the fund and good govern- 
ment of the schools before mentioned. Our true idea and 
plainly evident wish is not to be changed or perverted 

Control of School Fund. 125 

respecting this but is to continue the same and remain in 
full power forever. 

1. Since the originators and contributors to the said 
fund are of the people called Schwenkfelders, they re- 
gard the undertaking as theirs and desire that the trustees 
elected for the control of the fund and supervision of the 
schools may at all times be prudent and reputable men of 
the said community. But the idea and intention is that the 
said school system shall be open .to the children of the 
parents of any denomination, whoever they may be, under 
this condition that they pay for the instruction of their chil- 
dren, and that they and their children shall regulate and 
conduct themselves according to the necessary regulations 
hereby presented, as well as those that may be made here- 
after by the trustees hereinafter mentioned. Whereby, 
however, the impartial instruction according to the religion 
of each as much as relates to the schools shall not be hindered. 

2. On the second Monday in the month of March of 
each year forever between the hours of 10 and 2 of the 
said day the contributors to such school system (but they 
must be such of whatever religious society as have already 
subscribed or hereafter contribute, either to lend for a 
time £20 or more or to donate £2 in Pennsylvania currency 
or more to be expended for said school system) shall have 
the right to assemble at one of the school houses designated 
by the trustees, and then and there they or the majority of 
those that have met shall vote by ballot for trustees of the 
said school system for the succeeding year. The number 
of trustees shall be five, or as many as the contributors 
may agree upon, and these shall be reputable persons of 
the community. 

3. The said trustees or the majority of them shall have 
power and authority to make, order and establish good and 

126 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

necessary rules and regulations for the good government 
of said schools, the officers of the schools and the scholars 
who shall be amenable to the trustees collectively and in- 
dividually, yet with the condition that such rules and reg- 
ulations be in harmony with sound reason and the general 
regulations of this general plan. 

4. The said trustees or the majority of them shall have 
full power and authority to examine and adjust all impor- 
tant differences that may arise between the teachers and 
pupils, or their masters, parents or those who may be in 
authority over them, and the complaints of such as may 
feel wronged, either teachers or pupils, or any of them ; 
yet with this condition that by this article or whatever is 
included in it, it is not intended that those in authority — 
the teachers — shall be restrained from administering such 
reasonable and moderate chastisement as they may deem 

5. The said trustees or the majority of them shall from 
time to time elect and make agreement with school teachers 
and for just cause dismiss and discharge the same ; also 
dismiss and discharge unruly scholars and such as will not 
conduct themselves in accord with the afore-mentioned rules 
and regulations, as well as those who in unjust matters are 
not properly admonished by parent, guardian, master or 
mistress. In their election of school officers or school- 
masters due care must be taken that persons of education, 
wisdom, and unaffected piety and virtue are preferred and 
that such are avoided as are known to be selfish, quarrel- 
some and without affection. As far as possible they shall 
adapt themselves to the instructions of the contributors as 
agreed upon in June, 1764. 

6. The said trustees or the majority of them shall have 
full power and authority to have in their care, protection 

Duties of Trustees. 127 

and management the aforesaid fund and all money be- 
longing to the same. They shall keep an accurate account 
of the same and of their financial transactions, giving in- 
come and expenses, loans and all the circumstances rela- 
ting to the same. The obligation and security which they 
give as trustees shall be ample and binding both as to them- 
selves and their successors in office. 

7. The said trustees or the majority of them shall faith- 
fully use or invest all such money or income of such money 
as many be contributed to said school system by will, pres- 
ent or loan at all times as they may deem best for the true 
welfare of the same in accordance with the herein-men- 
tioned regulations, unless those that bequeath, present or 
loan the money give order how the money shall be used, 
which orders shall always be minutely followed in so far as 
they are not contrary to the herein-embraced regulations. 

8. The said schools shall be visited once in each month 
by at least two of said trustees in order that both teacher 
and pupil may do their duty. The trustees or the majority 
of them shall meet whenever the said visiting trustees find 
occasion to call them together and then to order and regu- 
late the affairs for which they are appointed and for which 
the said visiting trustees may have called them. They 
shall keep a book at the expense of the community in 
which to note and record all such matters as they may 
have agreed upon with respect to the schools at their 
meetings as well as accounts of all money which they re- 
ceive, expend or pay out from time to time. The said 
book shall be laid before the annual meeting of the con- 
tributors for inspection. 

9. In case, however, it should be discovered, seen and 
recognized by the contributors, contrary to all expectation, 
that the work thus instituted, the said school system, is 

128 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

more harmful than beneficial to the worthy cause hereby 
indicated, it is herewith agreed and resolved that in such 
event the whole matter shall be brought to an end and res- 
titution shall be made to each contributor or his heirs of 
the money donated and of the obligations and securities 
except what may have been expended. 

lo. It is further the sense and idea that the contributors 
or a majority of them assembled at any general meeting 
shall have the right to make such further regulations and 
to do and provide all such things as from time to time may 
be found serviceable to the well-being and convenience of 
the said undertaking — the school-system. 

In witness hereof there follow herewith the names of the 
founders, subscribers and supporters of the said school- 
system together with the amount of money subscribed by 

Christoph Schultz , 

^50 a 


Casper Kribel 

^50 a loan 

George Schultz 


George Kribel Jun. 

30 ' 

George Schultz, Jun. 


Abraham Kribel 

30 ' 

Melchior Schultz 


George Anders Sen. 

5 ' 

Barbara Yeakel 


George Anders Jun. 

20 ' 

Andreas Warmer 


Melcher Krebel 

20 ' 

David Schultz 


Casper Seibt 

30 ' 

Christoph Krause 


Christoph Neumann 

20 ' 

Christoph Yeakel 


David Neuman 

25 ' 

Balthasar Yeakel 


Heinrich Schneider 

20 ' 

Johannes Yeakel 


Abraham Yeakel 

20 ' 

George Heydrich 



Gregorius Schultz 

20 ' 

George Kriebel 

30 a 


Rosina Wiegner 

30 Nov. 27, 

Christoph Kribel 




Christoph Hoffman 



Andreas Haag 

4 a donation 

Hausz Chr. Huebner 




/'9\Ac\ r> r 

The showing made by the subscription list is quite cred- 
itable, although about twenty-five families were not repre- 
sented. Of these, some had moved away, some had no 
means, a few may not have been entirely in sympathy 

Election of Officers, 129 

with the movement and some did not join in any work of 
the Schwenkfelders, not being looked upon as being of 
the Schwenkfelders. The 840 pounds originally sub- 
scribed was reduced to less than 800 by the withdrawal of 
a few subscriptions. 

In this effort they had the example of practically all the 
churches around them : Mennonite, Reformed, Lutheran, 
Quaker, Moravian, Presbyterian, Episcopalian, Catholic 
— schools being conducted by all of these denominations. 
It is not unlikely that they received suggestions and inspira- 
tion from the establishment of the Germantown Academy, 
1761 . Unlike these churches, however, they could not look 
to the fatherland for aid, for there they had none to aid them. 
They could not look to the provincial government for it 
aided none educationally. They had the example of the 
religious and secular community to use the lottery for rais- 
ing money, for they had seen churches, parsonages, school- 
houses, paved streets and general public improvements 
made by raising money through such means. They chose 
the cheapest and best way of giving — by giving. Space 
forbids any detailed references to the prominent and com- 
mendable features of the plan which will become evident 
to the attentive reader on its perusal. 

The first election of officers took place August 10, 
1764, when the following trustees were chosen: Melchior 
Schultz, Christopher Schultz, Christopher Yeakel, George 
Kriebel and Casper Kriebel. The first teachers were John 
Davis and John Doerbaum. The former conducted a 
school for six months in the home of Christopher Schultz 
at a salary of £20 ($53.33) and board for the term; the 
latter, for the same time in the house of George Anders 
for £10 ($26.66) and board, light and fuel. Melchior 
Wiegner and Melchior Schultz jointly conveyed to the 


130 The Pennsyl-vania-German Society. 

trustees, September 24, 1764, two acres and fifty perches 
of meadow land for the benefit and use of the schools and 
the school teacher. The trustees made improvements on 
the land the following spring. The land reverted to the 
original owners seemingly by provision of the deed of 

The first school-house was built in 1765, in Towamencin, 
close to where the Schwenkfelder meeting house now 
stands, and a dwelling house for the teacher was erected 
a little later. Verbal promises were made at the time 
which, when it was proposed to put them into writing, led 
to misunderstandings followed by recriminations affecting 
even the attendance at the meetings for worship on Sun- 
day. The following spring (1766), at a business meeting, 
several of the subscribers said they were a thousand times 
sorry that they had joined in the movement to establish the 
schools. The dissatisfaction had not even died out in 1771 
when a censorious paper was sent to the trustees of the 
Goshenhoppen district. 

One of the early teachers gave considerable trouble to 
the trustees on account of his doctrinal standpoint. He 
was a great friend of the writings of Dippel and Edelman, 
and went so far as to quote objectionable passages from 
their writings in setting the copy-books of the pupils. It 
is needless to say that he was not reengaged ; nothing 
different could have been expected from a people who 
jealously guarded their children with respect to purity of 
Christian doctrine. Christopher Schultz was a great friend 
of a generous education, and, while schools were thus 
being conducted by the trustees, received into his family a 
number of Qiiaker boys for a time to teach them the ele- 
ments of German. His own children were doubtless also 
pleased thus to have the chance to learn a little English. 

Financial Misfortunes, 131 

For their benefit Schultz translated into English a short 
essay by Schwenkfeld on the Christian life. 

On account of the small number of contributors it was 
agreed, 1770, that the sons of contributors to the original 
fund should have the right to vote if they were twenty-one 
years of age and should be eligible to office if they were 
married. Prior to 1790 the schools of the Upper or Gosh- 
enhoppen district were conducted in the private houses of 
Christopher Schultz, Balzer Schultz, Christopher Krauss 
and George Yeakel. In 1790 a combined school and 
meeting-house was built in Hosensack, and the following 
year one was built in Washington, then a part of Here- 
ford Township, below the present Clayton. The length of 
school term averaged about four months per year. Prior 
to 1 781 the teachers were not of the Schwenkfelder faith, 
but misunderstandings and the selfishness of some of these 
hirelings led the trustees to seek to employ teachers 
chosen from among their own people. George Kriebel 
and Christopher Hoffman, the ministers, both taught for a 
number of years, each being past fifty when he began to 
teach. With varied other duties pressing upon them, they 
thought it not beneath their dignity to enter the school- 
room and teach the young of their flock. 

The school fund did not escape the financial misfortunes 
of the Revolution. In an address issued 1791, the trustees 
stated that by the interest of the fund of 1764 and by free 
contributions they supported a good school until the debtors 
to their fund began to pay their interest and at last the 
principal in depreciated currency. The debtors had re- 
ceived the hard-earned money of the Schwenkfelders and 
found it convenient and by enactment of law, legal — 
though not right — to repay in depreciated paper currency. 
This depreciation of the fund was an unfortunate, though 

132 The Pennsylvania-Gerinan Society. 

perhaps unavoidable accompaniment of the struggle for 
independence. Through this shrinkage the capital stock 
£800 contracted to less than £100 in 1793, which was 
offered to the original subscribers or their heirs. Of this 
sum less than £12 was accepted, the rest being donated to 
the fund. 

In 1780 the period for which the fund was originally 
collected expired. A general meeting of the supporters 
was held, at which it was agreed for the next three years 
to leave intact the capital which, through the accruing in- 
terest, was insufficient to meet the current expenses and 
which at the time was not readily convertible into specie. 
They divided themselves into four classes to be taxed pro 
rata under given conditions to meet the running expenses. 
An inspector was also elected to supervise the schools, 
and it was agreed that no child should be allowed to attend 
school that did not know the alphabet. This plan of di- 
viding the supporters into classes and of thus paying the 
teachers, etc., was continued until 1823, when the original 
plan of the schools was superseded by other methods. The 
fund amounting to about £146 became the nucleus of the 
literary fund as it exists to-day which is considered in a 
different connection. 

This school system reached its highest efficiency during 
1790-92 under the instruction of George Carl Stock, who 
afterwards served as a Lutheran minister. In August, 
1790, an agreement was entered into by the trustees with 
George Carl Stock, of Halle, as teacher in Goshenhoppen 
for one year at £5 ($13.33) P^'' month with free dwelling 
and fire-wood. This may seem a low salary but it must 
be remembered that George Kriebel, a minister, a large 
landholder and a man of means taught for half this salary. 
Stock agreed to teach English, German, Latin, Greek, etc. 




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134 '^^^^ Pennsylvania- German Society. 

He opened the school which he was wont to call " Our 
Academy," September i, 1790, where the present 
Schwenkfelder meeting house in Hosensack stands in the 
new school-house just erected and which was replaced by 
a new house in 1838. The school was continued without 
intermission seemingly for the 3^ear, when the contract was 
renewed for another year, but for some unexplained rea- 
son the school was closed at the end of April, 1792. 

The following words are quoted from a circular letter 
dated, " Philadelphia County, March, 1791," and will fur- 
nish some interesting data. The trustees " have lately and 
at their own expense erected a new school-house and dwell- 
ing-house for its master and engaged a man of good learn- 
ing and fair character to be the master of that school in 
which children of parents of any religious denomination, 
English or German, rich or poor, may be taught reading, 
writing, cyphering and some or other young men of genius 
instructed in mathematics and the learned languages and 
trained up to become ushers or assistants to this or any 
other school in this country. Catechisms and other 
doctrinal books of any religious school shall not be intro- 
duced in this school. Parents may form the minds of their 
children in their own way or may commit them to the 
clergy of the church or meeting to which they belong. 
The master of the school shall nevertheless use his utmost 
endeavors to impress on their tender minds the fear of 
God, the love of their country and of all mankind. This 
well-meant school is undertaken by a few persons of but 
moderate estates on whom the expense of supporting and 
improving it will fall very heavily. The trustees flatter 
themselves with the hope that it will meet with some en- 
couragement from the benevolent who have the good of 
the growing youth of this country at heart by contributing 
their mite towards this purpose." 

Text-Books . 135 

Unfortunately the school roll has not been located and 
may have been destroyed. From the treasurer's accounts 
it is evident that children of non-Schwenkfelder families 
attended : Isaac Schultz, John Schultz, Jacob Yeakel, 
Susanna Yeakel are known to have attended. John 
Krauss, Christopher Yeakel, David Yeakel and Andrew 
Yeakel, the sons of Balthasar, probably attended, although 
there is no positive evidence available at the time of writing. 

Among the books known to have been used are the fol- 
lowing : Cornelii Nepotes, Schreveliiis' Greek and Latin 
Lexicon, Sheridan'' s English Dictionary, Guthrie's Geo- 
graphical and Historical Grammar, Gesner's Latin and 
German Lexicon, Latin Selections from the Old Testament, 
also two globes, a terrestrial and a celestial, with a treatise 
on the same by Adams. That the students studied Latin 
and Greek is known from direct testimony to that effect 
and from the Latin letters written by them still extant. 
Nor were these Latin letters epistles of love full of soft 
sentimentalities and glittering generalities. They pro- 
pounded and answered questions bearing on the Bible, its 
doctrines, etc. The teacher also dictated to his pupils a 
series of propositions bearing on revealed theology that 
were written out in full, among others, by Susanna Yeakel, 
probably the daughter of Melchior, a farmer's girl of fif- 
teen. Of these propositions, 28 treated of the Bible in 
general, 34 of God, 25 of the Trinity, 9 of creation, 10 of 
Providence, 7 of angels. 

In the afternoon of New Year's day, 1791, the teacher 
read a paper, practically a sermon, based on 2 Cor. VI. 2 
in the school-house before his pupils, patrons and others. 
The original, still preserved, suggests a careful, conscien- 
tious, methodical and God-fearing man. In concluding his 
remarks he spoke directly to his pupils and ended as fol- 

136 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

lows : '* The Lord grant that through my teaching you 
may be trained to become useful members of human so- 
ciety on earth and what is most important to become 
members of the army of the redeemed in the unending 
eternity beyond. According to man's expectations and 
the course of nature I shall probably pass beyond the 
grave long years before you. What a joy it will be, my 
dear children, to see you before the throne of God when 
your brief course is run and before the seat of the Lamb 
that was slain, to join with you in the new song : Holy, 
holy, holy Father, Son and Holy Spirit, Amen, So let it 

Shortly ^before the Hosensack Academy was finally 
closed in April, 1792, George Kriebel, the pastor, paid a 
visit to it and addressed the scholars in a quasi-Baccalau- 
reate sermon. The line of thought is indicated by the fol- 
lowing brief outline gathered from his own fuller notes : 
Worthy and beloved young people and in particular the 
linguists : In view of the probability that the present school 
may before long be brought to a close, I have concluded 
to present a few matters briefly to you. 

1. The consciousness that the school was made a pos- 
sibility and a reality through sacrifice by members of our 
small religious body in the hope that you might be trained 
to become useful in various relations should make you cir- 
cumspect in your conduct lest discouragement be produced 
among those who aided the cause. 

2. It will at all times be pleasing to God and helpful to 
you to say with Samuel: "Speak, Lord! thy servant 

3. In choosing a profession, strive not to have days of 
ease, or to avoid heavy toil, or to win glory and honor; 
rather say with David: "Shew me thy ways, O Lord; 


■ u 

1*^^ ->»•;:' T-- 



o '^ 

*— ri I 

o z: 

Advice to Students, 137 

teach me thy paths. Lead me in thy truth and teach me ; 
for thou art the God of my salvation ; on thee do I wait all 
the day." Ps. XXV. 4, 5. 

4. Do not allow your knowledge to make you vain- 
glorious or proud. Be humble and seek to be serviceable. 

5. Stand by our religious society or rock from which 
you have sprung. Do not abuse what you have received. 

6. Avoid all heathen writings and read useful and edify- 
ing books, in particular the New Testament and the 
writings of Casper Schwenkfeld. 

When the school system of their own was abandoned by 
the Schwenkfelders, they joined in with their neighbors in 
educational efforts. Upon the adoption of the public school 
system some of them feared the abridgment of personal 
liberty and the secularization of the schools, but they 
became its friends and have continued its friends ever 
since. The whole life shows that as a body they were 
close friends of education at all times. Isaac Schultz doubt- 
less gave a fair presentation of them when he wrote in 
1844: **They pay great attention to education, to the 
religious and moral training of their children. Many of 
them possess a respectable knowledge of the learned lan- 
guages, Latin, etc. There is scarcely a family among 
them that does not possess a well-selected and neatly 
arranged library among which you will find manuscript 
copies from their learned fathers." It must not be over- 
looked that some were opposed to schools and did not take 
kindly to an advanced education. 

A revival of interest in education by the Schwenkfelders 
as a body has manifested itself in recent years. Accord- 
ingly their General Conference in October, 1891, appointed 
a committee of seven members to take into consideration 
the advisability of establishing a school for advanced or 

138 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

secondary education. The outcome was that " Perkiomen 
Seminary " was organized and put into active operation at 
Pennsburg, Pa., in the fall of 1892 under the principalship 
of Reverend Oscar Schultz Kriebel. In its ten years' 
existence it has risen to the front rank among private 
secondary schools of the state and has amply repaid itself 
in the work accomplished. To quote from a recent cata- 
logue : 

*' It is the aim of the school to furnish our worthy young 
people the very best possible educational advantages for 
the least possible expense. The founders of the school 
who gave so liberally of their thought and means are 
Christian men and women who believe in the necessity of 
a thorough and symmetrical development of all the powers 
of mind and body for the greatest usefulness and service 
in life. It is the purpose of the management to carry out 
the idea of the founders in such a way that the young 
people who attend the school may receive such thorough 
training, such wholesome development, and such wise and 
careful direction of their powers and activities as will fit 
them in the best possible manner for the exacting require- 
ments of a higher course of training or the actual respon- 
sibilities of life." 



The Schwenkfelders as Citizens. 

^***»T^ NDER this chapter will be consid- 

fxT^ /7 V /^^3^\^ ^^^^ ^^^^ Schwenkfelders in their 

x/ d\/V IM^vt' relation to the government, and 

more particularly with respect to 
the question of bearing arms. In 
doing this it will be proper to take 
a preview by stating that they were 
professing adherents of the views 
of Schwenkfeld even with respect 
to this relation in life. They, 
therefore, believed in following the «' Golden Rule " even 
in the management of the civil affairs of life. They 
believed that the spirit directing and moulding the con- 
duct of men towards their fellows should be the spirit 
of intercession, edification, service, peace, patience, for- 
giveness, humility, kindness, truthfulness and justice. 
They believed in the right of free speech and did 
not hesitate to express themselves when occasion seemed 
to suggest a necessity. They did not regard it incompat- 
ible with the professions of a Christian to hold office, 

( 139 ) 

140 The Pennsylvania- Germmi Society. 

neither did they deem it necessary for a public officer to 
be a professing Christian. They did not strive for public 
office, since they preferred the freedom of private life ; 
neither did they in general refuse to serve when called 
upon. It was with them a matter of religious faith to be 
obedient to those in authority, and they always did obey 
when matters of conscience did not enter into the question. 
They were opposed to war and oaths and dared to stand 
true to their convictions, even though the community and 
the State were set against them and made them suffer for 
their fidelity to their consciences. A study of the details 
of their history will substantiate these statements, but as 
space will permit no more, a few illustrative instances only 
can be referred to. 

Their pledge of allegiance, noticed in a different con- 
nection, was honestly made and honestly kept. In pursu- 
ance of an " act for naturalizing such foreign Protestants 
as are settled or shall be settled in any of the colonies," a 
company of Schwenkfelders took and subscribed the qual- 
ifications for them appointed by said act before John Kin- 
sey, Thomas Graeme and William Till, judges of the said 
court in April, 1743. The records show that later others 
took the same obligations. 

The Indians were a cause of great concern to the early 
settlers. On this score the families among the Schwenk- 
felders that had moved to Macungie probably endured most 
hardships. Isaac Schultz says of these: "Three enter- 
prising families, Gregorius Schultz and his two brothers- 
in-law, John and Balzer Yeakel, ventured in their march 
to cross the mountains into the so-called * Macungier 
Wilsteneiy where a few Indians and other people led a 
miserable existence and at times subjected them to harsh 
treatment. They had to endure more hardships than their 

French and Indian War. 141 

friends in Goshenhoppen and the Lower District. They 
were occasionally put in terror by the Indians, but they 
found it easier to live in peace and harmony with the In- 
dians than with their persecutors in the Old World, who 
had the Bible in the one hand and the sword in the other 
hand." In anticipation of an Indian outbreak they sold 
their homes and moved into the Goshenhoppen valley. 

During the French and Indian War the location of the 
Schwenkfelders was such that they escaped the terrors of 
the frontier but not the burden of making defense against 
the Indians. Christopher Schultz wrote of this period : 
*'In the year 1755, many war rumors arose in this and 
other provinces, and towards the end of the year unfriendly 
Indians made frequent attacks, people were killed and 
houses were laid desolate. It became necessary to place 
a heavy guard along the exposed frontier, and residents 
were at times called upon to come to the rescue in resisting 
the enemy. Our people willingly helped to bear their re- 
spective shares of the burdens that fell to the various town- 
ships without personally taking up arms against the enemy, 
a substitute being placed by them as their term of service 
came." They were subjected to some terrors, although 
they did not endure any special hardships. 

The feeling through the Goshenhoppen valley during 
the summer of 1755 is shown by the following incidents. 
Some one made the remark that many Indians were at the 
house of Reverend Schneider of the Catholic mission. 
Philadelphia soon became alarmed at the report that there 
were forty Indians at one place and thirty at another. 
The governor sent a committee to investigate, who re- 
ported that there were Indian beggars — six warriors with 
wives and children, at the house of the Reverend Schneider. 
In the latter part of October a rumor came to Goshen- 

142 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

an dm ^ 


An Unfounded Rumor. 143 

hoppen and Falckner Swamp that 1,300 French and In- 
dians had crossed the Susquehanna at Harris' ferry and 
were coming east. During the night while a heavy rain 
was falling, the report was spread with such success that the 
next morning a large body of men was ready to go at once 
and "devour the invaders like bread" as the newspaper 
of the times states it. To their mingled joy, sorrow and 
disgust these brave men found out that they had been mis- 
led by an unfounded rumor. They came home, wetter, 
sadder, madder men. By their shooting and shouting 
they alarmed the uninformed to such an extent that they 
began to flee hither and thither, passing and repassing like 
bees from an upset hive until they too learned that Dame 
Fame had told a tale. It was probably of this period that 
Isaac Schultz wrote : *' Alarm came at one time with such 
force across the hills into the lower valleys of Hereford 
that the residents suddenly began to prepare for flight. 
They gathered their valuables ; the kneading-troughs 
with dough and flour in them were snatched from the 
wondering bakers and with the valuables placed hurriedly 
on the wagons ; the fires were extinguished ; the guns 
were shouldered and off they started along the Maxatawny 
road in the direction of Philadelphia. They stopped when 
they came to the top of a hill to wait for some neighbors. 
Here they were met by their old friend Christopher Schultz 
when they decided to investigate the cause of the alarm. 
After looking into the matter they learned that they too 
had followed a false rumor." 

The condition of things at this time is thus described in 
Memorials of the Moravian Churchy Vol. I., p. 193 : 
"The line of the Blue Mountains from the Delaware to 
the Susquehanna became the scene of the carnival which 
the exasperated savages held with torch and tomahawk 

144 "^^^ Pennsylvania-German Society. 

during the latter part of the winter, 1755. The defense- 
less settlers were taken in a snare. They were harassed 
by an unseen foe by day and by night. Some were shot 
down at the plow, some were butchered at the fireside ; 
men, women and children were promiscuously toma- 
hawked or scalped or hurried away into distant captivity 
for torture or for coveted ransom. There was literally a 
pillar of fire by night and a pillar of cloud by day going 
up along the horizon, marking the progress of the relentless 
invaders as they dealt out death and pillage and confla- 
gration and drove before them in midwinter's flight hun- 
dreds of homeless wanderers who scarce knew where to 
turn for safety or for succor in the swift destruction that 
came upon them." 

That the Schwenkfelders did their share of work thus 
thrust on the more fortunate is shown by the fact that, with 
others, they sent flour and other provisions to Bethlehem to 
relieve distress, that Christopher Schultz and John Mack, 
a Mennonite, joined in writing a strong letter of appeal for 
help to their brethren in Towamencin, Christopher Weber, 
Casper Kriebel, Christopher Dresher and Joseph Lukens ; 
that David Schultz, the surveyor, a Schwenkfelder, served 
as one of the trustees of the money raised to put into the 
field in April and May, 1756, «< The Maxatawny and Alle- 
mangle Independent Guard." 

About this time the Friends began to deliberate on the 
formation of " The Friendly Association for regaining 
and preserving peace with the Indians by pacific measures." 
The Schwenkfelders harmonizing with the principles and 
purposes of the association formed a union among them- 
selves, November 13, 1756, and subscribed £206, the interest 
of which was devoted to such object. December i, 1756, 
Christopher Schultz and Casper Kriebel attended a grand 

French and Indian War. 145 

cvl//^ oJLy .^^ /7^7^^.*;^«. .^w^ / los-- n . yi, 
a^X^^^^^yjy/ .. , 6--3-f 

^^v^U <y;^, ,,,^ /^; /;^5;^ ^ WS-fi- o 

(^^•f:;7Z^i^r'^ , -y:;^»>y=«- '^-* ■^^ Sf^^^^-t^^-— ^rt-nO^f^^^ "Z/rt^^^ -^^^l^^^n-y^ 

auditor's report on money raised for "the FRIENDI.Y associa- 
tion " ; showing also handwriting of david schultz, 
the surveyor. 

146 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

meeting of the contributors to such fund in the Friends 
school-house, Philadelphia. Receipts show that £105, 
12, o was paid to the said association, June 7, 1757, and 
£109, 8, o, January 9, 1758. 

Concerning this effort Christopher Schultz wrote : 
*' The Quakers as well as we and others who have scru- 
ples of conscience against taking up arms against an 
enemy were accused of not being willing to bear their due 
share of the common burdens. They took pity on the 
miserable condition of the inhabitants along the frontier 
and felt that the Indian war arose on account of the unjust 
treatment of the Indians and was carried on under unholy 
purposes to the serious detriment of the province. With 
these things in mind they formed a union among themselves 
and invited others to join them with the purpose of doing 
what was possible to restore peace with the Indians and to 
preserve the same in the future, knowing that such effort 
and object could only be accomplished by heavy labors 
and expense." 

When in 1759, Conrad Weiser as agent appointed by 
Brigadier General Stanwix advertised for a number of 
wagons to carry provisions for the government to Bed- 
ford, Hereford Township responded. Melchior Shultz, 
Melchior Wiegner, David Meschter, Christopher Schultz, 
Schwenkfelders, aided — the latter as secretary and com- 
mittee to go to Reading and make the contract with the 
agent Conrad Weiser. 

From a letter by Christopher Schultz, dated December i, 
1760, we learn that after consulting friends concerning 
propositions made by the Friends it was agreed to con- 
tribute about half of the money raised by the Schwenk- 
felders towards release of poor prisoners and that the 
" rest could be left for further purposes, necessities and con- 

Aid Jor Poor Prisoners, 147 

siderations." At the same time he returned also to his friend 
Pemberton, ''Remarks on the behavior of Paupanhoal, 
having copied and translated the same into high Dutch." 

S^c<^ac£^,U-Jc /^^^ ^^ ^^^^/ ^^ ^ '^ ^^ 


In 1762, George Kriebel and Christopher Schultz were 
present at the Indian treaties at Easton and Lancaster. 

148 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

Other treaties were probably also attended by them. 
There is still preserved a paper answering the question, 
" Why should citizens attend the treaties with the Indians," 
in which high ground is taken with respect to this question. 
Thus the Schwenkfelders in the spirit of true patriots 
thought and toiled and sacrificed for the general welfare. 
They gave an unequivocal testimony in favor of honest 
dealing with the red man and thus placed themselves 
squarely on the side of right. 

The American Revolution brought perplexity, distress 
and many privations to the Schwenkfelders, although they 
as in other cases fared better than others, and compara- 
tively speaking their lines fell in pleasant places. In ap- 
proaching this period of transition we must remember thefol- 
lowing facts : they had secured the permission of the crown 
of England to settle in Pennsylvania before migrating in 
1734; they had promised and engaged to be faithful to the 
proprietor and strictly to observe the laws of the province 
and those of England. George Heebnerand Christopher 
Schultz, for themselves and others, with representatives of 
other faiths had said in an address to Robert Hunter Morris, 
the Lieutenant Governor in 1754: " We know very well 
that we can not give sufficient thanks to the Almighty for 
having conveyed us into such a country, and under so 
mild a government where the best privileges in the known 
world are established." They had always sought to live 
as dutiful subjects should, mindful of the promises they 
had made. As careful and intelligent observers of, the 
affairs of the provinces they saw the drift of things, and 
hoped the threatened danger and disaster might be averted. 
On Memorial Day, 1774, Christopher Schultz said : " The 
mighty ones of the British Kingdom assail our most valued 
liberties and we seem to be on the verge of a great change." 

Fealty to King George III. 149 

Parting even from an adopted parent country gave pain 
to them. 

On the second of July, 1774, ^ nieeting of prominent resi- 
dents of Berks County was held in the Court House at 
Reading, which Christopher Schultz probably attended, 
and at which he and six others were appointed as a com- 
mittee to represent the county. At this meeting the fol- 
lowing, among other resolutions, was adopted : *' That the 
inhabitants of this county do owe and will pay due alle- 
giance to our rightful Sovereign, King George the Third." 
Five of the chosen committee, among whom was Christo- 
pher Schultz, attended a provincial meeting of deputies 
in Philadelphia, on the fifteenth of July, where, among 
other resolutions, the following was unanimously adopted : 
** We acknowledge ourselves and the inhabitants of this 
province, liege subjects of his Majesty, King George the 
Third, to whom they and we owe and will bear true and 
faithful allegiance." But the war cloud grew. In De- 
cember, i774» a county committee of observation was 
chosen at Reading, for Berks County, among whom was 
Christopher Schultz. This committee met and unani- 
mously agreed to a proposed provincial convention, and 
appointed a committee of seven to represent the county, 
among which committee Christopher Schultz was found 
again. He and Melchior Wagner, a delegate from Phila- 
delphia County, also a Schwenkfelder, attended the pro- 
vincial convention for the province of Pennsylvania, in 
January, 1775. A series of strong resolutions was adopted, 
among which was the following: "Resolved, unani- 
mously that it is the earnest wish and desire of this con- 
vention to see harmony restored between Great Britain 
and the colonies, * * * but if the British administration 
should attempt to force a submission to the late arbitrary 

150 The Pennsylvania- Ge7'man Society. 

acts of the British Parliament, in such a situation we hold 
it our indispensable duty to resist such force, and at every 
hazard to defend the rights and liberties of America." In 
voting for this and other resolutions, Schultz and Wagner 
undoubtedly represented the mind of the Schwenkfelders 
in general on the issues at stake. 

On the nineteenth of April, 1775, the British comman- 
der at Lexington gave the word "Fire," to his soldiers, 
and thus by the seven deaths that resulted among the 
Americans, caused all the provinces to rise in arms against 
the mother country. In a letter to Germany, dated July 
22, 1775, Christopher Schultz describes the battle of Lex- 
ington and then continues as follows: "Since the first 
blood was shed by the British you can not believe what a 
flame of war-spirit like a lightning stroke has set on fire 
all our provinces and caused them to glow. All are 
armed in full battle array. In cities even the little boys 
form companies and conduct military exercises. Ducking 
and stooping and guarding of words must be studiously 
practiced if great danger and the military roll are to be 
avoided, which latter our people have thus far escaped." 

This wave of militarism and wrath must have had a 
tendency to hasten crystallization of sentiments bearing 
on the relation between England and the colonies. It 
brought out into still bolder relief the leading factions — 
those favoring and those opposing war with the mother 
country. Besides these two elements there was another 
class, numerous, respectable, divergent in minor details, who 
from religious motives alike were opposed to the bearing of 
arms — the Friends, Dunkers, Mennonites, the Schwenk- 
felders and others. These added another serious problem 
to the perplexities of those in power. The people in gen- 
eral could scarcely reconcile themselves to the feelings of 

JVon- Combatants. 


the " non-militants" and were often led to show their dis- 
approval by acts of violence in private life, by over-offi- 
ciousness in public life. A Schwenkfelder chronicler of 
the times says: " For those citizens of the province who 
at the breaking out of the war did not take up arms, the 
prospect was often full of fear and dread. The mad rab- 
ble said : ' If we must march to the field of battle, he who 
will not take up arms must first be treated as an enemy.' " 

A respectable number of inhabitants of Berks County, 
who were conscientiously opposed to bearing arms held a 
meeting at Reading, September i, 1775. In a letter 
transmitting the resolutions adopted by the meeting to the 
Committee of Safety in Philadelphia, William Reeser, who, 
by the way, was an intimate friend of Christopher Shultz, 
used these words: "Inclosed is a copy of the resolves 
entered into by the deputies of a considerable number of 
inhabitants of this county as are conscientiously scrupulous 
of taking up arms, though at the same time fully sensible 
of the justice of our cause and willing as far as in them 
lies to contribute to its support. * * * I have the strongest 
assurance from the numbers of the subscription that they 
will ever cheerfully contribute their proportion towards the 
safety and welfare of the public." The list of delegates is 
not known to their writer, neither is it possible with present 
knowledge to affirm the presence or absence of Schwenk- 
felders, although circumstances indicate their attendance 
and the resolutions certainly voiced their sentiments. 

On the seventeenth of May, 1776, a day of prayer was 
observed by the Schwenkfelders at the call of Congress 
for such day of general prayer. Christopher Schultz led 
the services. He read Leviticus XXVI., and by way of in- 
troduction referred to and briefly explained Amos III. 6: 
" Shall there be evil in the city and the Lord hath not 

152 The Pennsylvania- Ger7nan Society. 

done it?" He maintained that the ministers of the Eng- 
lish court were instruments in the hands of God like 
Nebuchadnezzar to punish the American people for their 
sins. His theme was : Seeking refuge by penitence in 
God the Creator, Ruler and Supporter through Christ the 
Lord and Protector of believers. 

Space scarcely permits even a reference to the Declara- 
tion of Independence and the consequent increased pres- 
sure on the Schwenkf elders, but attention must be called 
to the following declaration and agreement drafted prob- 
ably by Christopher Schultz and in all likelihood used as 
indicated, although positive proof of the latter is wanting. 

A Candid Declaration of Some So-called Schwenk- 

FELDERS Concerning Present Militia 

Affairs, May i, 1777. 

We who are known by the name Schwenkfelders hereby 
confess and declare that for conscience' sake it is impos- 
sible for us to take up arms and kill our fellowmen ; we 
also believe that so far as knowledge of us goes this fact 
is well known concerning us. 

We have hitherto been allowed by our lawmakers to 
enjoy this liberty of conscience. 

We have felt assured of the same freedom of conscience 
for the future by virtue of the public resolution of Con- 
gress and our Assembly. 

We will with our fellow citizens gladly and willingly 
bear our due share of the common civil taxes and burdens 
excepting the bearing of arms and weapons. 

We can not in consequence of this take part in the ex- 
isting militia arrangements, though we would not with- 
draw ourselves from any other demands of the govern- 

Refusal to Bear Arms. 153 

Whereas, at present through contempt of the manifested 
divine goodness and through other sins, heavy burdens, 
extensive disturbances by war and divers military regula- 
tions are brought forth and continued. 

Whereas, we on the first of this month made a candid 
declaration concerning present military arrangements to 
the effect that we can not on account of conscience take 
part in said military affairs and 

Whereas, it seems indeed probable that military service 
will be exacted from many of our people and that on re- 
fusal to render such service heavy fines will be imposed. 

Therefore^ the undersigned who adhere to the apostolic 
doctrines of the sainted Casper Schwenkfeld and who seek 
to maintain the same by public services and by instruction 
of the young have mutually agreed, and herewith united 
themselves to this end that they will mutually with each 
other bear such fines as may be imposed on account of re- 
fusal for conscience' sake to render military service in case 
deadly weapons are carried and used. Those on whom 
such burdens may fall will render a strict account to the 
managers of the Charity Fund in order that steps may be 
taken to a proper adjustment. 

Coschehoppe, May 2, 1777. 

A few weeks previous to this, March 31, 1777, Chris- 
topher Schultz was appointed a justice of the peace. Was 
this a bribe in guise to stop his mouth? It is to be regretted 
that no positive reliable information is at hand respecting 
the acceptance or non-acceptance of the commission. Non- 
filing of the commission in the proper county office, the 
absence of records by " Christopher Schultz, Justice of the 
Peace," silence in the various historical sketches and Schultz 
manuscripts and the general bearing of the Schwenkfelders 

154 '^^^^ Pennsylvania- Gei- man Society. 

towards the government in general and the Revolutionary- 
War element in particular furnish very strong circum- 
stantial evidence to the effect that Christopher Schultz did 
not accept the office. 

Although great hardships had already befallen the 
Schwenkfelders with many others, their lot was made 
much more grievous by the general militia act of 1777 
passed to restrain the insolence of Tories. The Pennsyl- 
vania Assembly, on the thirteenth of June, passed a strin- 
gent law which among other matters required all male white 
inhabitants above the age of eighteen to take and subscribe 
before a justice of the peace an oath in the following 

form: "I do swear (or affirm) that I renounce and 

refuse all allegiance to George the Third, King of Great 
Britain, his heirs and successors : and that I will be faith- 
ful and bear true allegiance to the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania a free and independent State, and that I 
will not at any time do or cause to be done any matter or 
thing that will be prejudicial or injurious to the freedom 
and independence thereof, as declared by Congress, and 
also, that I will discover and make known to some one 
justice of the peace of said state all treasons or traitorous 
conspiracies which I now know or hereafter shall know to 
be formed against this or any of the United States of 
America." The law also provided that every person refus- 
ing or neglecting to take and subscribe the said oath or 
affirmation " shall during the time of such neglect or refusal 
be incapable of holding any office of place or trust in the 
state, serving on juries, suing for any debts, electing or 
being elected, buying or selling, or transferring any lands, 
tenements or hereditaments and shall be disarmed." The 
law further states that " every person who shall travel out 
of the county or city in which he usually resides without 

The Test Act. 155 

the certificate (of his oath) may be suspected to be a spy 
and to hold principles inimical to the United States and 
shall be taken before one of the justices who shall tender 
to him the oath or affirmation and upon refusal to take the 
said oath or affirmation the justice shall commit him to the 
common jail there to remain without bail until he shall take 
and subscribe the said oath or produce a certificate that he 
has already done so." 

This "test act," as the above law was popularly 
known, went into operation on the first of July, 1777, and 
before a month had passed was used to harass the Schwenk- 
felders. George Kriebel, one of the number, was illegally 
imprisoned at Easton on charges preferred by his neigh- 
bors. On the twelfth of August, his friend Christopher 
Schultz drafted a strong letter to his old-time friend Sebas- 
tian Levan, of Maxatawny, who, as one of the members of 
the Assembly, had helped to pass the test act. On the 
thirteenth, Schultz went to Philadelphia to appeal to the 
proper authorities. He did not go in vain, for on the 
fifteenth of August the Supreme Executive Council took 
action on the case and the presumption is that George 
Kriebel was soon after released. The letter of Schultz is 
given in the Appendix. Further details are given in 
Colonial Records^ XL, 269, and Pennsylvania Archives^ 
v., 432 and 525. Christopher Schultz drafted a letter to 
his friends in Germany, December 27, 1777, from which 
the following words are culled: "What unrest, danger 
and affliction have befallen us through the fortunes of war 
can not well be described. * * * Rash, bold, inexperi- 
enced, conscienceless heads found means through the 
upheaval not only to draw the government of Pennsylvania 
into their own hands, but also to maintain the same, con- 
trary to the will and mind of all people of moderation. On 

156 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

account of the war all things go wrong ; the demands, 
injunctions and forcible extortions can scarcely be told 
which continually plague those that do not blow the horn 
of the war-party. Heavy fines are imposed for non-per- 
formance of military service. In spite of all this we have 
not allowed ourselves to be forced into the war." 

We gain a glimpse at the condition of things in connec- 
tion with the celebration of Memorial Day, 1777. This 
year the Schwenkfelders, contrary to custom, met at two 
places simultaneously — near Palm, in Upper Hanover, and 
in Towamencin. Christopher Schultz said on this occa- 
sion : " We have made use of this day for more than forty 
years to meet and recall together the manifested blessings 
of God and to exhort one another to gratitude, but the 
period of rest seems for the present to have reached its 
time of change. We have the terrible tumult of war be- 
fore our ears and near our very doors. It has even come 
to pass that a new law has been passed according to which 
we who live in different counties do not have the right to 
meet. O that we might properly benefit by these things, 
confess our guilt before God, humble ourselves before Him 
and move His heart to pity by a proper return with the 
Prodigal Son ! He surely would grant us protection as he 
has shown it to us unworthy ones until now." George 
Kriebel referred to this occasion in an address on Memo- 
rial Day, 1793, in which he said he regarded it one of the 
most important days in their American history: "English 
armies were in Philadelphia at the time and made frequent 
incursions into the farming sections, occasionally quite a 
distance. On account of the many reports about the army 
we were uneasy about our families because in some cases 
only wife and children or even only the children were at 
home. We considered it, therefore, advisable to dismiss 
at noon and return to our homes." 

Appeal to the Assembly. 157 

A glimpse at the general conduct and reputation of the 
Schwenkfelders is afforded by the following letter of 
George Bryan, Vice-President of the Supreme Executive 
Council, to Colonel John Wetzel, of Northampton, dated 
Lancaster, May 22, 1778: '■'■Sir: The Moravians and 
Swenkfelders have been very urgent with Assembly to 
relax the Test and free them from the abjuration part. 
The claim of the King of Great Britain forbids anything 
like this being done. When that prince shall renounce his 
claim it will be time enough to reconsider the Test. How- 
ever, as these people are not to be feared, either as to num- 
bers or malice, it is the wish of government not to distress 
them by any unequal fines, or by calling them without 
special occasion happens, to take the oath at all. The 
disabilities ensuing upon their own neglect are heavy, and 
will without further pressing (which may be termed rigor 
by people in general, persecution by themselves) operate 
strongly upon them. On these grounds, we wish it to be 
understood that Council and Assembly desires to avoid 
any noise from these people above mentioned, and to have 
them dealt with as others in regard to the delinquency in 
the militia. Your prudent advice to your friends and dep- 
uties, without exposing these lines to the knowledge of the 
petitioners, will serve the public interest and oblige, Your 
very obed't serv't G. B." A Schwenkfelder writer says 
that when, in 1778, the Assembly set a day when people 
would either have to take the test or be forever excluded 
from all the rights of citizenship, the Schwenkfelders 
finally submitted in view of the fact that the requirement 
pertained only to the duties of citizenship ; that it came 
from the power that had to give protection, and that it 
was a duty of every soul to be subject unto the higher 

158 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

Christopher Schultz penned a letter to friends in Ger- 
many, in 1779, ^" which he used these words: "To the 
glory of God we must say that His protecting hand has 
been over us in such a fatherly way that, notwithstanding 
frequent fearful prospects, urgent want, severe threats and 
even extortions by those in authority, it is customary for 
our people to say as they meet in conversation, ' no one 
has any reason for complaint, he ought rather to thank 
God who has always had ways and means of escape for us 
even if at times punishment befell us.' The war party has 
thus far not succeeded in forcing any of our people to en- 
ter the military lines although all males between 18 and 53 
were enrolled in the militia classes, but exorbitant sums 
must be paid to escape such service." The same thoughts 
were repeated in a letter written in 1783 signed by a num- 
ber of the leading Schwenkfelders. Space forbids further 
reference to other interesting material in verification of 
these extracts. 

This does not imply that no descendants of the immi- 
grants took arms, for we know that Balzer Heydrick was 
a captain, and that his brothers George and Abraham Hey- 
drick rendered some service, but the probability is that at 
that time they were not taking any part in the organized 
religious services as conducted by the Schwenkfelders and 
consequently not looked upon as being part of them. 
Neither is it implied that Schwenkfelders did not aid the 
cause of freedom. In illustration of this the following 
by the antiquarian Abraham H. Cassel is quoted from His- 
torical Sketches published by the Historical Society of 
Montgomery County : *' George Anders, a member of the 
Schwenkfelder sect then living on a farm, long since known 
as the Meschter farm, had two very fine horses and so also 
had his friend and neighbor Abraham Kriebel. These, 

Continental Requisitions. 159 

together with their handsome new wagon, just from the 
wheelwright, were pressed in the service of the Conti- 
nental Army. Anders felt such a tender concern for his 
pet horses that he could hardly let them go, fearing that 
they might not be properly cared for. He, therefore, 
offered his son Abraham, then eighteen years old, to go 
with the horses as their groom or teamster or driver. The 
offer was of course gladly accepted. After he had served 
awhile and had gained the confidence of the superior offi- 
cers he was sometimes sent considerable distances with this 
team for various commodities. So on one occasion he 
thought to take advantage of their confidence and at- 
tempted to make his escape with the team, but he dared 
not come home for fear of being arrested. He was there- 
fore making his way to Goshenhoppen, in Berks County, 
where many Schwenkfelders lived, to his uncle, George 
Kriebel. But he was pursued and overtaken before he 
reached there, by the Superintendent of Transport. He 
escaped punishment by artfully pleading that he had lost 
his way and became so bewildered as not to know where 
he was. As he was yet so young and was supposed to be 
inexperienced about the country, the officer believed his 
story and therefore merely ordered him back again without 
any further punishment. He then served till the army was so 
far removed that his further services could be dispensed 
with. Then he got an honorable discharge, and came 
home with the wagon and all the horses in splendid con- 

At the organization of the society in 1782 the position of 
the Schwenkfelders was so well known that seemingly it 
was taken for granted and for many years action was but 
rarely taken in conferences. At the spring conference, 
1828, the members took into consideration the conduct of 

i6o The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

the young people in attending the " battalions " or military- 
parades, as contrary to the doctrines of the church, the 
fathers and to what Jesus Christ had taught. At the fol- 
lowing conference it was agreed to exhort the young people 
of the error of their ways and to inform them that if they 
insisted in their course of conduct they would by their own 
action exclude themselves from the church and would have 
to be so treated — in other words expulsion from church 
would follow for attending military parades. 

During the Rebellion, members of the Schwenkfelder 
church when drafted under the conscription act of Congress 
avoided military service by securing substitutes. In such 
cases the poorer members were assisted by their richer 

A study of the war record of the Schwenkfelders and 
their descendants would seem to warrant these conclusions, 
(i) No one directly connected with the religious society or 
church of the Schwenkfelders took up arms for active ser- 
vice in any war since the immigration. (2) Descendants 
have been engaged in every war since the Revolution 
including the late Spanish war. (3) No Schwenkfelder 
ever refused to pay the fines imposed for non-performance 
of military service. (4) No Schwenkfelders were ever 
suspected of treason, toryism or disloyalty to government. 
(5) Less hardship befell them than most other non- 


The Private Life of the Schwenkfelders. 

O far an attempt has been made 
in this volume to trace the 
Schwenkfelders in their organ- 
ized relaions. The pleasant 
duty remains of reviewing their 
private lives, their toils and sor- 
rows . It is utterly impossible to 
do more than here and there to 
lift the curtain and thus to afford 
a glimpse. It will be an attempt to develop a composite 
picture of their ordinary past daily walk and conversation. 
Charity teaches us to leave the curtain down as to the many 
minor shortcomings and errors. 

At birth, the parents would give thanks to the Father 
for His gift and the minister would remember mother and 
child in his ministrations for the people before the throne 
of grace. As soon as convenient thereafter a formal con- 
secration of the child either public or private would be 
held. Isaac Schultz refers to this in the following words : 
*' As soon as a child is born, a preacher or minister is 
called in to pray for the happiness and prosperity of the 
II (i6i) 

1 62 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

child, admonishing the parents to educate their tender off- 
spring ; to bring them up in the nurture and admonition 
of the Lord, according to the will of God. Parents gen- 
erally bring their little ones into the house of worship, 
where the same service is performed." At one time the 
question arose whether a minister was at liberty to render 
such services when the parents were not Schwenkfelders. 
At times some seem to have felt that this child consecration 
displaced baptism. 

The child was early taught to offer his prayers, sing his 
hymns and use his pencil and book. In 1792 Rev. George 
Kriebel reminded the pupils of the Hosensack Academy 
that they had received training in Christian doctrine from 
their youth up. Before the child was allowed to trot away 
to school he was to learn his A, B, C's. As soon as able he 
was encouraged to copy sermons, hymns or the esteemed 
words of some father. This kept the child from mischief, 
taught him to make good use of his time and gave him a 
bias to what is good, true and right. He was clothed in 
homemade goods and not in the flimsy and delicate fabrics 
of the present, nor was he housed up during the winter in 
homes where every room registered summer heat, nor was 
he spoiled as to temper and digestion by gifts of cakes, 
sweetmeats and poisonous candies to be consumed at every 
unseasonable hour, nor had he a room full of tin soldiers, 
horses, castles, railroad trains and comic automata play- 
things " made in Germany." 

When the child became sick or was threatened with 
some of the dread afflictions of childhood, domestic rem- 
edies were resorted to. Some of these were made up of 
herbs, roots, leaves, bark or at times their ashes. Beside 
these, according to a book in the hands 'of the writer, a 
record of Mrs. George Heydrick (the midwife, d. 1828, 

Folk-lore. 163 

who notes more than 1,700 professional visits), living crabs, 
pulverized egg shells, skulls of dogs, the lice of sheep,. 
worms, red beads, human hair and unwashed yarn were also 
deemed of medicinal value. For example, for whooping 
cough, take of the hair of one who never saw his father and 
place it around the neck of the patient, either in a bag, or 
sewed in the clothing or plaited into a braid ; or this : give 
the patient bread and butter spread by one who did not 
change her family-name at marriage ; for convulsive fits, 
take a skein of unwashed yarn, spun by a child under seven 
years of age, pass it over the forehead of the patient, then 
pass the patient through the skein three times the same 
way, burn the yarn, gather the ashes and add a little of the 
ashes to the patient's soup. A curious feature of modern 
times is to believe in somewhat similar remedies, to reject 
the aid of God-fearing, scientificall^arained medical practi- 
tioners and to worship the faith curist. 

When the child became old enough^^his religious training 
was actively entered upon. He was grounded in the funda- 
mental principles by a study of the catechetical questions. 
In this study he was encouraged to write out all the proof- 
texts or even perhaps to commit to memory all the ques- 
tions and answers of the catechism. He was taught how 
to understand the sacred didactic poetry found in the 
hymn-books or circulated in manuscript copy. He was 
instructed in prayer and in the duty of leading a God-fear- 
ing life. In these studies questions were often assigned 
to pupils in order that during their hours of toil their medi- 
tations might thus be directed. Christopher Kriebel, who 
had charge of the training of the young for more than 
thirty-three years, encouraged his pupils to write out com- 
ments on the assigned topic or Scripture passage, two 
weeks' time being allowed to prepare the answer. In this 


The Pennsylvania- German Society. 



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Sunday Schools. 165 

way he, for instance, spent eight years in a study of the 
Gospel according to St. John, his own record of the ques- 
tions and answers covering more than a thousand pages of 
closely written manuscript. 

Some of the young people were in the habit of asking 
each other questions concerning events, persons, etc., of 
the Bible — even in Latin at the time of the Hosensack 
Academy. At a later period the young were expected to 
commit to memory the gospel lessons of the whole church 
year and received regular drill on the same by question 
and answer. They copied their TdgUches Gesang Bilch- 
lein and thus early learned to send to Heaven on the wings 
of song many a petition worded in the rugged rhythms 
of the fathers. They copied the confessions of faith and 
thus fixed firmly the great truths for which the fathers 
suffered and fled. Although the modern Sunday-school 
is of recent date, the idea of imparting religious instruction 
on Sundays is not recent and the Schwenkfelder boy and 
girl have been accustomed to attend classes for religious 
instruction on Sunday ever since the fathers landed. Nor 
were these instructions limited to Sundays. Meetings 
were at various periods frequently held for such training 
during the week. Balzer Hoffman also prepared a ques- 
tion book on the gospel lessons covering the whole year to 
be used in the instruction of the young, in connection 
with his hymns on the same. One need not be surprised 
that under such intensive training, the life and thought of 
the young became tinged with a Pharisaic pride. The 
following words by one of the descendants of Christopher 
Schultz probably represent the feelings of others — un- 
happily not found alone among the Schwenkfelders : 
"When I first went away from home I had the idea that 
every denomination but the Schwenkfelders were in a 


The Pennsylvania- Gerfuan Society. 

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Training of the Young. 167 

state nearly allied to the Gentiles and that it was a duty 
to avoid intercourse with them as much as possible. 
Whatever may have been the cause of this state of mind, 
I honestly thought that piety and morality were confined 
to the narrow limits of the church to which my parents 

The Schwenkfelder parent was quite anxious to have 
his child secure at least the rudiments of the three R's. 
This position is well expressed in the preamble of the 
Agreement of 1764 quoted in another connection as fol- 
lows : "The faithful training of the young in reading, 
writing and the study of the languages according to sex, 
age and standing, and their instruction in the principles 
of true religion contribute very much to the welfare and 
prosperity of every community. The boys and girls were 
thus sent to school and the words of Isaac Schultz fairly 
represent them : '< They pay great attention to the educa- 
tion of their children." At the close of the term the 
teacher frequently favored them by giving them a pen- 
written memento, a kind of diploma or certificate of good 

When the time came for the young man to think of find- 
ing a helpmate for himself, he was encouraged to seek a 
Schwenkfelder damsel. Fathers compared mixed mar- 
riages to a nesting together of the crow and the dove. 
The fathers even tried to tell him what the different steps 
in the selection ought to be, practically, how to pop the ques- 
tion, but young Cupid though blindfolded oft found ways 
to defeat the best laid plans of wise and pious parents and 
with his shafts inflicted the incurable wound. Alas ! that 
at times the young could not see as the fathers did and 
later awoke to learn that they had loved neither wisely nor 
well. The ludicrous also happened. When young Hein- 

i68 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

rich Schneider and lovely Rosina Neuman of Gwynedd 
found their hearts beat as one, they started for Philadel- 
phia to secure some proper person to declare them one. 
Christopher, the father, said in substance " Heinrich 
Schneider has stolen my Rose " and followed on horse- 
back to prevent the impending catastrophe. His hurried 
ride was in vain. The twain had been wedded. God 
bestowed his blessing upon them and an honored patro- 
nymic was added to the list of Schwenkfelder family 
names. When young Christopher Schultz (afterwards 
the Reverend Christopher) engaged himself to Rosina 
Yeakel, he, as others had done, also made a will in due 
form bequeathing her a definite sum of money should he 
die before their contemplated marriage. 

The following exceptional episodes are related of the 
courtship days of one innocent comic rural swain. He 
called at one place and received the *'sack." On his 
way home either for joy or pain of heart or through a 
spirit of mischief, he made such a noise that the dogs along 
the way joined in a howling chorus and thus heralded 
the progress of the victim through the valleys. At another 
time when on a similar mission he came to a house having a 
so-called double-door. For some reason not explained by 
tradition he stepped over the lower closed half instead of 
opening it. One need not be surprised that he failed here 
too. Subsequently he called at a home where there were 
two buxom daughters. The older one left the room in such 
a manner that he had a chance to follow and make known 
his mission. He failed to do so and she went to bed leav- 
ing the younger sister alone with the caller. He then told 
her that he had called for the older sister, that although it 
was customary to harvest the hay before the aftermath, 
she would do. This meant of course another "sack." 

Marriage Customs, 169 

Fourthly he tried his fortune at a place where he found 
a wood-chest in the sitting room. He lay down on it, say- 
ing that he found as much comfort in lying down as in 
sitting. Here again he failed. 

When a young couple had finally decided to sail down 
life's stream together the next step was to go to some 
Justice of the Peace or church minister and have the cere- 
mony performed. Considerable intermarrying took place. 
Thus the present writer can refer to 25 ancestors who 
came to Pennsylvania on the ship St. Andrew in 1734- 
In most cases the bridegroom, however, would go to the 
minister and declare their intentions in order that the 
same might be announced in open meeting. This was 
repeated several times during which period the minister 
met the groom and bride several times and instructed them 
on Christian doctrine and particularly on the duties of 
married life. The important day having come, the in- 
vited guests assembled at the house of the bride and 
awaited the minister. Regular religious services were 
conducted including prayer, singing and a sermon, upon 
which the ceremony followed and the twain were pro- 
nounced one. At the marriage feast which followed the 
*' Schwenkfelder cake " was not missing, neither were the 
poor forgotten. From the table bountifully laden, the 
baskets were filled and members of the family dispatched 
to the unfortunate. Drinking, dancing and other doubt- 
ful doings were not permitted. At times the pastor would 
remember the new couple by sending them a letter rich with 
sound precepts. At one time a regulation was adopted 
that if members of the society were not married by the 
regular ministers, a confession expressive of regret at the 
irregular step would have to be made in open meeting 
Then all steps in life were regarded sacred and entrance 
into the married relation one of the most sacred of all. 

170 The Pennsylvania- Ger7nan Society. 

The young bride had — perhaps for years — been mak- 
ing preparations for her duties as wife and mistress of the 
future home. She had saved the rags — in recent decades 
at least — and cut them into strips to be woven into carpet 
by father or brother. She had made the spinning wheel 
hum and had prepared her thread and warp and woof for 
her linen and linsey-woolsey. She had probably worked 
her samplers to ornament the spare-room, rich in a variety 
of colors, filled with curious shaped animals, ornamented 
letters and figures or perhaps even with the reproduction 
of bits of landscape. She had in readiness several changes 
of bed linen complete with quilts, comfortables and feather- 
bed and coverlets displaying all the colors of the rainbow 
arranged in designs more or less artistic. Perchance she 
had even started to collect her family treasure of shining 
pewter or queensware ornamented with letters, figures, 
etc. She had learned to make her own soap, to cook and 
bake and, what was a pride of her heart, to make a 
Schwenkfelder cake. This was a risen cake, spread by 
rolling pin, flavored by saffron, and crowned by sweetened 
crumbs, as wide as the oven door or baker's tools would 
warrant and baked in the old-fashioned bake-oven. Sad 
to say the fame of the cakes at times went farther than the 
fame of the bakers themselves. It is probable that these 
cakes originated in Silesia for there to this day does the 
busy housewife bake the same cake called Streiiselkuchen. 

It may not be amiss to take a peep at the life in the 
family. Isaac Schultz says in 1844: "They — the 
Schwenkfelders — form a respectable part of the German 
community of the counties above named. Some of them 
pursue agriculture, some manufactures, others are engaged 
in commercial enterprise. By their strict discipline they 
keep their members orderly and pure from the contami- 

Characteristics. \'i'i. 

nating influences of the corruptions so prevalent. They 
are a moral people ; pious and highly esteemed by all 
who know them. They pay great attention to the educa- 
tion, the moral and religious training of their children. 
Many of them possess a respectable knowledge of the 
learned languages, Latin, etc. There is scarcely a family 
among them that does not possess a well-selected and 
neatly arranged library." Balzer Schultz relates the fol- 
lowing expressions of opinion by C. E. Stock, the teacher 
of the Hosensack Academy, 1792 : " I must say this, of all 
the sects and religious bodies I have met, and they are 
many, I found none with whom I was so well pleased. I 
have now lived with you for some time and have never 
heard an oath or blasphemous word. I never saw one of 
your people drunk. You are kind and beneficent to all, 
particularly to the poor. You are orderly and industrious 
in your calling. You do not waste your substance on 
splendor and richness in clothing as do others. You live 
separated from the world and you seek to keep your chil- 
dren away from the world. Neither during the week 
much less on Sundays do you allow your children to go 
to places of public resort, but encourage them in the study 
of the Bible." Schwenkfelders were expected to pay their 
debts. He who did not do so, was looked upon as having 
forfeited the rights of membership. If a person under 
adverse circumstances felt the pangs of poverty gnaw at 
his vitals he did not need to worry about his going over the 
hill to the poor house, for such as these w^ere always cared 
for out of the Charity Fund, at no time exhausted since 
its founding. Even the tramps were not forgotten and 
they were known to ask the way to the Schwenkfelder 
valley. Even the ministers had a fund placed in their 
hands at one time to help along the " Weary Willies " of 
the road. 

172 The Pennsylvania- Ger7nan Society. 

The peculiarities of dress spoken of by some writers 
have passed away. Freedom was indeed guaranteed to 
families by church regulation, hence no particular regu- 
lations can be spoken of. New fashions, new goods, new 
styles were scrupulously avoided and legislated against, 
and as a matter of economy the use of home-made goods 
was encouraged. 

The Schwenkfelders were not office seekers though 
when called upon they usually served. Christopher 
Schultz was commissioned as a Justice of the Peace in 1777 
but in all probability failed to accept the commission. 
Christopher Hoffman was appealed to by messengers to 
serve in a certain office for which he had been chosen but 
flatly refused. After the messengers had left, he said to 
his wife: *' Oh how good is it to be able to remain 
humble." A few years after this Abraham Schultz was a 
member of the Pennsylvania Assembly and as such served 
on various committees. In more recent times the Schwenk- 
felders have drifted more towards public office. They 
have, however, always been close students of public affairs 
and have been intelligent readers of the current secular 
and religious papers. Nor have they hesitated to express 
themselves when occasion seemed to demand. They have 
always been law-abiding. They were averse to resorting 
to law although ready even thus to maintain their rights, if 
need be. 

The Schwenkfelder farmer was not averse to having re- 
demptioners in his household. Abraham Beyer, Andrew 
Beyer, David Schultz and Christopher K. Schultz are 
known to have employed them. In the case of David 
Schultz, Hans Ulrich Seller had originally been helped by 
Abraham Beyer the father of Mrs. David Shultz who paid 
his ship-passage from Rotterdam. He was of a very 

Missionary Efforts. 173 

ugly and surly disposition. To improve matters surveyor 
David took the German into his own household. The out- 
come was that Mrs. Schultz was cruelly murdered, June 
14, 1750, by Seiler, who after due process of law was exe- 
cuted the following November, the first German to be exe- 
cuted in Pennsylvania according to David Schultz. They 
probably never were negro slaveholders, but they are not 
known to have offered any assistance to the underground 

//^/f^,/^t-^^ ^-. ^ — ^ ^^>^ ^^ ^ — . - ^, vs' .*«. ■ .«s»— _ -^^X 



railroad. When the president or the governor called for a 
day of prayer, humiliation or thanksgiving the Schwenk- 
felders, as all loyal citizens heartily responded. Nor did 
he deem it too much trouble to go forty miles to cast his 
vote at a Provincial election. 

In their secular employments they were mostly farm- 
ers though many served their fellows in various other 

174 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

capacities. The peripatetic shoemaker, tailor, nailmaker, 
fencemaker were well known. The various steps in the 
manufacture of linen goods from the sowing of the flax- 
seed in the well-manured and well-cultivated garden spot to 
the bleaching or dyeing of the fabrics by home-made dyes 
was well-know^n to them by actual experience. In harvest 
time the larger farmers would have half a dozen grain- 
cradles or more in their fields which meant the employment, 
feeding and lodging of perhaps a score of extra hands. 
David Schultz, surveyor, remarks in his diary that he em- 
ployed twenty-four reapers one day. With five or six, or 
seven meals a day of good substantial food, a demijohn of 
applejack on the pump floor and perhaps one in the field, a 
great amount of work would be done. How they would 
rejoice at the familiar long drawn sound of the dinner horn 
possibly tooted by a mischievous youngster sitting on the 
houseroof. If at night strange noises or merry laughter 
were heard, or beds turned upside down, or wagon wheels 
misplaced, or dead chickens placed on long poles in front 
of the open bedroom windows none was the wiser or less 
agreeable in the morning. 

In turning his products into cash, the Schwenkf elder 
farmers would haul the grain to Flourtown, Germantown 
or Philadelphia. With his neighbors he would organize 
butter market companies in order that each of the half 
dozen or more farmers might take his turn in going to the 
" town." He would start in the small hours of the morn- 
ing, with four horses attached to his heavy laden Conestoga 
wagon, with possibly a couple of the daughters occupying 
the front seats who hoped to see the sights and make pur- 
chases for the family. Such rides on a springless Cone- 
stoga over the rocks, around the stumps, on uncushioned 
boards with thrusts against the sides of the wagon-body 

Rural Customs. 175 

must have caused a voracious appetite and the most charm- 
ing rosy cheeks and dimpled chins. The day's journey 
ended, the team would probably follow a long train of sim- 
ilar wagons to one of the numerous hostleries along the 
road, and the wants of man and beast would be attended to 
for the night. Going to bed meant for the teamsters then, 
lying on a bag of feed on the floor of the bar-room, try- 
ing to sleep, telling his tale of woe, listening to blood- 
curdling stories or cracking his jokes, sometimes rather 
coarse. Thus he went. On his return trip he would 
bring salt for his stock, gypsum for his fields, fish for the 
family and neighbors, storegoods for the country merchant, 
and last but not least by any means in the estimation of the 
recipients, trinkets for the little boys and girls in exchange 
for the nuts or nicely combed hog bristles given him to 
market. Tradition tells us that where East Greenville is 
now located there was formerly one of the worst stretches 
of road along the whole Philadelphia route, one that farm- 
ers always dreaded — and particularly on cloudy, moonless 
nights — the winding between the trees and through the 
bogs and low places axle-deep with sticky mud. 

When the apples were ripe, apple butter parties were in 
order. Who can declare the rural joy in picking apples 
under the wide spreading apple trees and making the 
luscious cider at the old-fashioned home-made cider mill, 
in drinking the sweet cider or eating the rich cidersoup, 
in making bushels of '* schnitz," in stirring the mixture of 
schnitz and cider until the proper consistency has been 
reached, in trying to eat the tempting fool cake filled with 
tow^ prepared by the smiling, haughty farmer's daughter, in 
dipping the finished product from the copper kettle and 
gathering up the remains along the sides of the kettle 
either with crooked finger or crust of bread and eating to 

176 The Pennsylv ant a' German Society. 

one's heart's content. He who has not joined on such or 
similar occasions in playing a game of " Blumsock" (hunt 
the slipper) knows not what genuine innocent sport is. 

At times spinning wheels would be shouldered, and a 
visit made to a neighbor to talk and spin. The years 
crops being all harvested, thrashing was in order which was 
done by flail, or rude machine or the quasi-Scriptural method 
of letting the horse tread out the golden grain. If there 
was naught else to do, spinning was engaged in by father, 
mother, son and daughter the whole winter through, the 
aim being to finish the year's spinning by Candlemas — 
^^ Lichtmes. Spin Verg'ess." Some might occasionally be 
seen working on the tape machines weaving strings, either 
ornamental for the Sunday-go-to-meeting apron or plain 
for household use or for father's grain bags. The various 
looms too were kept in motion and the miller in the hollow 
sang and whistled as his wheel turned round, grinding out 
the grist or yielding the pure linseed oil and meal. 

When the snows began to fall and sleighing was thus 
assured, Christoffel or Balthasar or Hans Heinrich would 
sniff the air, and say to Bevvy and Molly, " To-night we 
will take a sleigh ride." Word would be sent to the neigh- 
boring houses, the home-made bob-sleigh would be brought 
forth, the wagon body placed on it and half filled with 
clean straw. Grain bags would be stuffed full of straw and 
placed cross-wise for seats. In due time eight, ten or a 
dozen pairs of the neighboring boys and girls would start 
off. The inexperienced can not appreciate the pleasures 
of a sleigh ride in a crisp, moonlight night, horses pranc- 
ing, sleighbells ringing in bright jingling tones, girls, 
laughing, dogs barking, the hills reechoing, and all hearts 
light and gay and free. The spacious farmhouse of some 
blood relation or friend being reached, all would jump out, 

Hymnology . 


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1 78 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

some perhaps to measure their own length in a snowdrift, 
the horses would be led to the spare stalls back of the 
cows, and the good wife would make the whole com- 
pany feel welcome. Games were perhaps indulged in, 
but none such as might prove but nurseries of future wrong- 
doing were allowable. Supper was served and as the 
small hours of the morning came the company broke up 
and the rustic lads and lasses wended their way homeward. 
In his religious life the Schwenkfelder would begin and 
end each day in prayer, though oft in secret and inaudi- 
bly. At each meal, either silently or audibly, by prayer, 
song or the innocent child's lisping, he would return thanks 
to God for his gifts. He had his book of daily prayers and 
hymns, which he did not fail to use. If he wished to have 
a particular book, either in manuscript or print, he did not 
regard it beneath his dignity, or as unworthy of his man- 
hood, or as being a useless waste of time, to copy such 
envied production in full for himself. He would even 
take up knotty questions in theology for study and write 
out his comments. In his library he had the sermons, 
either printed or written, of Werner, Hiller, Weichenhan 
Hoburg, the Epistolaren of Schwenkfeld, the mystic writ- 
ings of Hoburg and the collections of letters of more recent 
times. These he read and studied. He had courses of 
reading so that various books might be read through in 
course during the year. The Pennsylvania Historical So- 
ciety, has one of these *' courses " complete for the church 
year, in which all the leading Schwenkfelder writers, 
from Schwenkfeld to Balzer Hoffman, are referred to. 
Each Sunday has readings arranged for Friih, Vormit- 
iags, Nachmittags ^ Kinderlehr. The authorship is not 
determined. On Sunday, if he did not go to meeting, he 
would have his devotions in his home. After the morning 

Public Worship. 179 

chores were done and the family clothed in the clean 
home-spun to be worn the following week, the family 
would gather, hymns were sung, prayers offered, per- 
haps read out of his book of prayers, and the sermon for 
the Sunday read by some one of the family. Woe to the 
child that fell asleep. If a hearer became listless, the 
book would be passed to him with a request to continue the 
reading. Doubtless the minds of the youthful worshippers 
would be wandering over the green pastures, beside the 
still waters or by the shady swimming pool, while the body 
was paying due respect to the solemnities of the occasion. 
Sermon ended, the dinner and the feeding of the lowing 
herd would demand attention. In the afternoon the young 
would not be allowed to wander away from home to en- 
gage in mischief. They would gather for instruction in 
their places of worship, or, staying at home, would copy 
sacred hyms or sermons, or engage in other religious ex- 
ercises, or as amateur artists they would paint houses, 
ornamental letters, or creations of the imagination ; be- 
times the young ladies of the household would ply their 
needles on their fancy work. Before 1790 the Schwenk- 
felder had no house of worship to go to. When after 
that he went to his place of prayer and praise he had no 
bell to call the people, no backs or cushions to the seats, 
no stained glass windows, no carpets to hush the footfall 
of the belated worshipper, no ushers to tell the people to 
come up higher, no organ to drown the voice of the sing- 
ers, no choirs to praise God by proxy, no Rev. Blank, 
D.D., LL.D., to dazzle with a sensational pyrotechnic 
display of smooth-flowing cadences and glittering general- 
ities. The service he attended was non-liturgical though 
the sermon or prayers were occasionally read from printed 
books or from manuscripts. His preacher served without 

i8o The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

pay, hence could be fearless and free and had no occasion 
to measure the effect of his labors by the subscriptions in 
the successive collection books. In worship sexes and 
ages were seated separately, men were dressed so much 
alike that one would involuntarily think of uniforms. The 
snow-white caps, aprons and neckerchiefs of the women 
placed the worshipper in a devotional frame of mind. The 
boys and girls sat by the parents in their home-spuns and 
probably barefooted in summer time. In prayer they 
stood in reverent attitude, and as the names of the Saviour 
were mentioned by the preacher they all slightly bent the 
knee, and thus visibly and inaudibly expressed their amens 
to praise and supplication. 

As an illustration of the procedure when death invaded 
the family and claimed a victim we will quote Christopher 
Kriebel's letter of 1769 : " We in ' Coschehoppe, Shippach 
and Towamencin,' have our own burying grounds at each 
place. Many have burying grounds on their own land for 
their families. Others who lived a considerable distance 
away have buried their dead in burying grounds of people 
who are not of our faith, since those of quite different re- 
ligious views have buried there for the earth is quite com- 
mon to such use in our land. We have also allowed our 
neighbors who live near us and are of different religious 
views to bury in our grounds. The ceremony with us is as 
follows : on the death of any one, there is a general con- 
sultation between the family of the deceased and the neigh- 
bors in reference to the burial of the body ; a duty is as- 
signed to each one which he is expected to attend to until 
the ceremonies are ended. At the same time provision is 
made for messengers to go on horseback to the distant 
places where our people reside, and since for a long time 
no minister has been among us, a request is made at the 

Hyinnology , 



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Iln^ oafs am (if^ip^ntCtn. 



182 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

same time of the one who is to speak a word of exhortation 
on the occasion of the funeral. On account of our homes 
being considerably scattered many horses are brought 
together (the women are as good riders on their side-saddles 
as the men ; there is no difference). The horses from a 
distance are fed, the people are provided with bread, butter 
and a refreshing drink, on cold days warm drinks are pro- 
vided. The care of horse and man, the digging of the 
grave and the burial are entrusted to the neighbors who 
are designated by the bereaved family. The place where 
the preaching takes place is at times under the open sky, 
but mostly in the barns which usually prove entirely too 
small, so that many have to sit and stand outside. The 
exercises are opened with the singing of a hymn or two, 
which is followed by a discourse of perhaps an hour and a 
half and then closed by another hymn. Upon this the 
body is carried to the grave and buried while a hymn is 
sung. Thanks are expressed for the love shown during 
the bereavement and invitations are given to return to the 
house of mourning for refreshment." Though reforms 
and changes have been introduced in funeral customs, the 
essential mode of procedure has not been materially 
changed, since this was written. 


Bibliographical Notes. 

HE preface of the second edition of 
the Catechism by Christopher Schuhz 
opens with these words; "A pure, 
Christian system of doctrine of faith 
is among all temporal gifts and 
favors of God, the greatest and 
most important." In these words 
jV^^ -"«fc*i£i^^ the author but voices the controlling 
i V '^^.~>' sentiment of all sincere and earnest 

Schwenkfelders. Among such people, the student would 
naturally expect to find in addition to doctrinal education, 
considerable activity in the line of religious literature and 
such has been the case. Casual reference has been made 
to this in earlier chapters ; an effort will be made to 'pres- 
ent a concise review of the American efforts in this direc- 
tion without attempting to catalogue all the productions. 

The correspondence of these people with their European 
friends and acquaintances affords much light in this direc- 
tion. This began probably as early as 1731 when George 
Schultz, the brother of surveyor David, landed in Phila- 
delphia. The present writer has in this connection com- 


1 84 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

piled a partial list of over 200 letters still preserved extend- 
ing from 1733 to 1792, some of which are quite lengthy- 
productions. It is probable that prior to 1765 the corres- 
pondence was somewhat limited partly due to the fact that 
means of conveyance or the mail facilities were meager. 
At that time, however, on account of Heintze, Kurtz, Groh, 
Fliegner and others, living in or near Probsthayn, more 
interest began to manifest itself. Thus for instance we 
read that in 1769, 39 letters were enclosed in one package, 
in 1770, 41, and in 1774, 44.^ From 1776 to 1784, there 
was almost a complete interruption of correspondence on 
account of the Revolutionary war. These letters are a mine 
of information respecting the inner life of the community 
during the whole period. A package of them was found 
by Ober-Lehrer Friedrich Schneider in his extensive his- 
toric researches who wrote these words in reference to 
them: "From all of these there shines forth a pious and 
peaceful mind. The condition of these Schwenkfelders 
is continually good. In expression most of these letters 
are correct, fluent and cultured. * * * The letters of this 
Susanna Wiegner (Mrs. George Wiegner) in spite of her 
age are written in a firm and neat hand and their style 
betrays an unusual education." In subject matter these 
were letters of friendship, business, religious exhortation 
or doctrinal controversy of an individual or general na- 
ture. From this correspondence we also learn that efforts 
were made at various times by the Schwenkfelders to res- 
cue their old doctrinal books, among others those taken 
from them during the time of the Jesuit Mission 1720 to 
1726. Considerably prior to 1767, boxes full of books 

^Sample " addresses " of these letters : " Aan Monsier George Hiibner in 
Pencilvania im Valckner Swam"; "Aan Melchior Hiibner 12 Stonden von 
Philadelphia in Pensilvania " ; "Discs Briflein zu kommen an George Hiibner 
als meinem liben Schwagerin Pensilvanien." 




Correspondence. 185 

were imported through their friend Wigand of Frankfort. 
The price of an Epistolar of Schwenkfeld was 12 to 18 
gulden — a gulden equals 41 to 48 cents. References 
show that other importations were made and that money 
was raised for such purpose. 

Besides this correspondence the early life in Penn- 
sylvania shows remarkable activity in denominational 
literature. Many of the manuscript volumes are still pre- 
served and prove rich feasts to the eye of the book-lover. 
Numbers of these have been allowed to pass into strange 
hands to be highly treasured or to be allowed to be de- 
stroyed. Some of the volumes are stately developments 
of lines of thought more or less profound ; others mere 
collections of papers on allied themes ; others, record of 
work in the training of the young ; others, crude " What- 
nots " for the preservation of literary gems or curiosities. 
Series of sermon outlines by most of the ministers are still 
preserved affording much valuable information. Writings 
of a controversial nature are not wanting either as for in- 
stance those against the views of Jane Leade, or Jacob 
Boehme, or the restorationists or the lively sparring of 
Joshua Schultz and Daniel Weiser. 

With respect to a special line of work, Hon. S. W. 
Pennypacker used these words in an address before the 
Pennsylvania-German Society: ♦* I want to call your at- 
tention to another sect, the Schwenkfelders who came to 
Pennsylvania. They were the followers of Casper 
Schwenkfeld and the doctrines taught by him were almost 
identical with those taught by the Quakers. They came 
in 1734. Their literature was extensive and interesting. 
It is reproduced for the most part in huge folios written 
upon paper made at the Rittenhouse paper-mill on the 
Wissahickon, the earliest in America. These volumes 

i86 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

sometimes contained looo pages, bound in stamped leather 
with brass covers and brass mounting. (Christopher 
Hoffman was their bookbinder. H. W. K.) Among the 
notable facts connected with their history is that they pre- 
pared a written description of all the writings of Schwenk- 
feld and their other authors and it is as far as I know the 
first attempt at a bibliography in this country." {Penfisyl- 
vania Germans, Vol. II., 38.) In connection with this 
bibliography a record was made of the contents of the 
books owned by the different families (1741-1747) in the 
Salford and Towamencin districts. The abrupt breaking 
off of the record suggests the probability that it had been 
planned to extend the list. The writer has no knowledge 
that anything like this was attempted since. 

It is worthy of note that the huge manuscript volumes 
were in nearly every instance supplied with registers or 
indexes. Too often, it is to be feared, people have looked 
upon these manuscript volumes as a quantity of paper 
rather than as a record of midnight toil and anguish of 
soul, historic accretions of profound thinking, rubies and 
diamonds perchance for the adornment of God's spiritual 
temple and kingdom. Fortunes have been won and lost 
but no one seems to have thought of collecting, collating 
and saving from destruction, these treasures by providing 
a place for them and a fund for their proper care, study 
and publication. Can God bless a people that carelessly 
despises its heritage and forgets its history? 

It will be profitable and instructive to particularize a 
little more closely with respect to the work done by some 
of these toilers. 

George Weiss, son of Casper, was born in Harpersdorf , 
Lower Silesia, Germany, in 1687. Abandoning his prop- 
erty on account of persecution, he like others went with 

Bibliography. 187 

his family to Saxony in 1726 and to Pennsylvania in 1734, 
where he died in 1740. As a youth he was not allowed 
to be idle if one may judge by his copying Michael Hil- 
ler's Postill before he was thirteen years old. His father, 
a strenuous Schwenkfelder, collated a large hymn-book, a 
large book of prayers, and glosses or comments on various 
passages of the Bible. The son in helping to copy these, 
early received a sound religious training. In 1720 George 
wrote a Confession of Faith for the Schwenkfelders and 
answers to the questions propounded by the Jesuit mission- 
aries. About the same time he wrote an extended article 
on clothing in which he took a very stringent position in 
favor of simplicity of dress and against the innovations 
creeping in on the Schwenkfelders. By 1730 he had 
completed a series of poetic productions collected in a 
volume having the following title page literally translated : 
''^Meditations, that is studies and spiritual explanations 
of the names of different patriarchs and prophets in the 
Old Testament and of the evangelists and apostles in the 
New Testament with expositions of the hidden mysteries 
beariiig on Christ the Son of God who was to and did as- 
sume fesh and in it did redeem his people and unite man 
with God; composed, meditated and arranged in simple 
rhy^ne according to the mind {Sinn^ of the Holy Spirit and 
the Holy Scriptures.'" About the same time he practically 
rewrote Suderman's hymns based on the Song of Solomon 
rearranging the same, assigning a suitable melody and in 
many cases adding one or more stanzas. In 1733, he 
began to write letters to various members of the Schwenk- 
felder community on Scripture passages as a means of reli- 
gious culture and thus in a little more than a year composed 
material that would fill almost 400 pages of a book octavo 
size. After the migration to Pennsylvania he continued 

i88 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

this doctrinal and devotional letter writing. At death he 
left incomplete several series of studies in the line of re- 
vealed theology, and about i,6oo catechetical questions 
on creation, prayer, the Lord's Pra3'er, faith, the Ten Com- 
mandments, the Christian church, the knowledge of Christ, 
Baptism, the Lord's Supper and marriage. 

Balzer Hoffman, like his bosom friend George Weiss, 
was born in Harpersdorf, 1687, and under like circum- 
stances came to Pennsylvania, where he died in 1775. The 
importance of his father Christopher is indicated by his 
being chosen as one of the three Schwenkfelders to go to 
Vienna to plead tolerance before Charles VL Like Weiss, 
young Balthasar also copied his Postill before he was 
thirteen years old. During the Vienna mission he as 
one of the three aided in placing seventeen memorials 
before Charles. His son Christopher made out a descrip- 
tive catalogue of his writings, the original of which is in 
the possession of Hon. S. W. Pennypacker. According 
to said catalogue, the period of his productive writing ex- 
tends at least from 1722 to 1773. The catalogue enumer- 
ates 58 tracts, refers to 83 letters and fails to mention his 
hymns, his historical sketches and minor productions. 
The writings are classified under three heads : {a) Studies 
of the Bible either by verses or chapters; {b) other useful 
studies and confessions, and (c) studies of hymns. Want 
of space forbids enumeration of these. Among the more 
important efforts are the following : 

1722. A short catechism. 

1724. A postill called Efistasia on the Epistle lessons 
of the church year. He arranged the same texts in rhymes 
1726 and composed prayers to accompany them 1738. 

1725. A study of the epistle to the Hebrews called Hex- 

Bibliography. 189 

1734. A postill on the gospel lessons for the church year 
called, Evangelische Jahr Betrachtung. He prepared 
questions as a guide for the study of these in 1744 and also 
arranged them in rhyme. 

1743. A glossary in German of Scripture terms. 

175 1. A careful study of the Apostle's Creed. 

He composed studies of many hymns, wrote out in com- 
parative fullness his " Gedachtniss tag" sermons, prepared 
historical sketches of the Schwenkfelders and worked out 
elaborate productions in the line of revealed theology. 
One of these was called HodophcBuum. He seems to 
have supervised the copying of the Weiss hymn-book by 
his son Christopher, and thus performed serviceable work 
preliminary to the hymn-book of 1762. Before the migra- 
tion, he at various times, quaintly used the pseudonym, 
Barachiah Heber or implied his initials B. H. by placing 
prominently on the title page two words beginning with 
these letters. 

Christopher Schultz, son of Melchior, was born in Har- 
persdorf, 17 18, was taken to Saxony by his parents at the 
time of their flight, came as an orphan to Pennsylvania 
and died in 1789. He was a remarkable man and for 
many years the chief figure in the Schwenkfelder com- 
munity. He was all his life a close student, a clear 
thinker, and a fearless, Godfearing Christian. With re- 
spect to his literary work the following cursory remarks at 
least seem in place. His description of the voyage to 
Pennsylvania in 1734 by the Schwenkfelders is a classic 
in its way, and does credit to an orphan of sixteen. He 
collected some of the letters of George Weiss and probably 
his catechetical questions also about the year 1743. He 
copied Hoffman's Hcxatomtcs, 1746, and probably aided in 
the preparation of a paper on marriage with respect to 

IQO The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

views and customs among the Schwenkf elders, 1748. 
From 1750 to 1775 he wrote the Historische Anmerckun- 
gen^ published in the Americana Germana, Volume II., 
No. I. From a letter to his friend Israel Pemberton the 
following words are quoted : " With these presents I do re- 
turn the remarks on the behavior of Paupanahoal, having 
copied and translated the same into high Dutch. It hath 
been very acceptable to several of my friends who rejoice 
in perceiving the hand of grace to operate so strongly on 
the poor heathen." In the publication of the Neu-Einge- 
richtetes Gesanghtich of 1762 he was a hearty worker. In 

1763 the first edition of his Catechism was issued. In 

1764 he led the Schwenkfelders in organizing the school 
system described in another chapter. In 1768 he prepared 
a short sketch of Schwenkfeld and his followers at the 
request of his friends, Anthony Benezet and Israel Pem- 
berton, which with other material was sent to the Queen 
of England, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. The 
Oueen had heard of the Schwenkfelders at home, made 
inquiries concerning them on coming to England, sent 
greetings to them through Jacob Haagen, a Quaker, and 
expressed a desire to see their books and know more of 
them. In 1770 he translated one of Schwenkf eld's tracts 
on the Christian life for the benefit of Quaker boys who 
were at his home to study German. In 177 1 the Erlciu- 
terungy or defense of Schwenkfeld and his followers, was 
issued — to a great extent the work of Christopher Schultz. 
The Compendium or Glauhenslehre written out by him 
was begun in 1775 and finished in 1783 and then allowed 
to lie in manuscript more than half a century. In 1777 
he translated a number of letters on education which 
had been published in the Pennsylvania Magazitie, 1775. 
In 1782 he drew up the constitution of the Schwenkf elder 

Bibliography. 191 

Society or Church. After subjecting the first edition of 
his Catechism to a severe scrutiny and consequent revision, 
he issued a second edition in 1784. It may be of interest 
to quote the following words from Yeakel's History of 
the Evangelical Association^ Volume I., page 48: The 
Schwenkf elders had " also some very good books, espe- 
cially an excellent Catechism, of which Rev. William W. 
Orwig made a liberal use in compiling the second Cate- 
chism for the Evangelical Association, published in 1846." 
A cursory examination shows that in many cases the exact 
wording was embodied, in others slight variations were 
made. Singularly the author failed to acknowledge any 
indebtedness to any one for his Catechism. Christopher 
Schultz took an active part in the Heintze correspondence 
and on various occasions came to the defence of the faith 
in vigorous controversial writings. His sermons at mar- 
riages, funerals, and on memorial days, he in many cases 
wrote out quite fully, and in such shape they are still pre- 
served. A study of his orthography shows that after he 
had begun his literary work he deliberately changed his 
system of spelling. While he was thus toiling he also 
served as pastor, gratis, won his food and raiment and 
made himself generally useful to the community. 

Dr. Abraham Wagner, son of Melchior, was born 1715 
(circa) and came to Pennsylvania 1737, where he died 
1763. He was an earnest broad-minded Christian and a 
great reader. He collected poems of John Kelpius, ex- 
tensive biographical notes on Spener whom he admired 
and wrote a beautiful letter to Muhlenberg quoted in the 
Hallesche Nachrichten. His poetic productions began be- 
fore he was 18 and continued to his death. More than 
fifty of these products are still preserved. 

ip2 The Petmsylvanta-German Society. 

Christopher Wiegner, the diarist, son of Adam Wiegner, 
was born in Harpersdorf, 17 12. During the flight of the 
Schwenkfelders he was taken to Gorlitz, by his parents, 
where he soon came to take an active part in the religious 
life of the community. He began to keep a diary or rec- 
ord of his experiences during this time and kept it up 
until 1739, thus covering the life among the Moravians in 
Saxony, the migration to Pennsylvania and life in Mont- 
gomery county. It furnishes many interesting and authen- 
tic details of the momentous period in which he lived. It 
is to be hoped that ways and means may be found for put- 
ting the same into print. For further details see Chapter 

David Schultz, the surveyor, son of George, was born 
in 1717, came with his father to Pennsylvania in 1733 on 
account of persecutions and settled in the Goshenhoppen 
valley where he died, 1797. He wrote an account of the 
migration to Pennsylvania of the company with which he 
came published in the Pennsylvania Magazine of History 
and Biography y Vol. X., page 167. He was a great 
reader and almost incessant writer and in his general re- 
lations one of the most important men of his community. 
He kept a diary in interleaved almanacs that came to light 
a few years ago and were in part published by the late 
Henry S. Dotterer in The Perkiomen Rcgio7i. In an- 
nouncing this publication the editor said : " In the next 
number of the Perkiomen Region we shall commence the 
publication of a MS. of extraordinary historical interest. 
It relates especially to the early settlements at Goshen- 
hoppen — old and new, Falkner Swamp, Hereford, Hosen- 
sack. Great Swamp, Colebrookdale and Salford, but in a 
wider sense it furnishes a great amount of authentic infor- 
mation regarding the Colonial period, its people and their 

o E 













II 1 










David Schultz. 


interests. It is the journal kept by David Shultze, immi- 
grant, colonist, surveyor, scrivener, law adviser, a resident 
of Upper Hanover township in the Perkiomen Valley. In 
his journal three languages are employed, German, Eng- 
lish and Latin." He wrote a number of poems, one of 
these on the death of his wife, murdered June, 1750, and 
scattered notes suggest that he contemplated publishing a 
book. Rev. C. Z. Weiser wrote these words concerning 
him: "We have abundant records to show that he had 
been the recognized scrivener, conveyancer, surveyor and 
general business agent for the frontier settlers scattered 
over a wide district in Eastern Pennsylvania as far down 
as 1797. 

Christoph Hoffman son of Balthasar Hoffman was born 
in 1732 and received a careful religious training at the 
hands of his father. Between 1758 and 1760 he copied 
the Weiss hymn book. As a catechist he made record 
of the work done by him and his class, he wrote an inter- 
esting account of his father's life and labors and collected 
and catalogued his writings in 1795. As minister he 
delivered sermons on various occasions which are still 

Christoph Kriebel son of Christoph came to Pennsyl- 
vania with his parents as a lad of 14 in 1734. -^^ ^^^ 
younger days he copied a number of manuscript volumes. 
At the religious conference of 1762 he took an active part 
and read a paper that met with approval by the company. 
He became a catechist and later a preacher among the 
Schwenkfelders. As such he wrote out some of his ser- 
mons, one series consisting of twenty sermons on the sac- 
raments. He recorded the questions and answers in 
connection with his Bible classes in four volumes extend- 
ing from 1764 to 1797. He took a leading part in the 

ip4 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

Heintze correspondence and made a collection of copies of 
the more important letters received and sent. 

Of the publications relating to the Schwenkfelders the 
following items may be noted : 

1742. Das kleine A. B. C. in der S chide Chris ti — 
Dr. Abraham Wagner. 

1748. Von dent wahren, eivigen Friedsame Reiche 
Christi. George Frell — Germantown, Saur. 

1748.. Auszug aus Christian Hohburgs Postilla Mystica 
— Saur. 

1762. Neu-Eingerichtetes Gesang-Biich — Germantown, 

This is a hymn-book 5x7, double column, containing 
xxxiii 4- 760 pages with three indexes. The book was one 
of the most ambitious attempts in the line of hymnology in 
the colony up to that time and must have meant very con- 
siderable labor and expense. Christopher Schultz in his 
Historische Anmerckungen says in substance : The print- 
ing of a hymn-book for our own use, discussed for some time 
was regarded desirable because the hymns in use lay scat- 
tered, the old printed Picard hymn-books were passing out 
of use and copying was a tiresome and expensive work. 
The matter came to an issue in 1759 in such form that a 
plan was agreed upon and sufficient subscribers declared 
themselves, and it was decided to proceed with the matter 
and have the book published. To prepare the manuscript 
for the printer meant an incredible amount of labor and 
conferring. The printer began work on it the middle of 
1761 and finished the work by the end of 1762. In the 
introduction are found the following words : "It has been 
the object to gather beautiful, instructive and edifying 
hymns. With respect to the beautiful or what may prop- 
erly be called the beautiful in this connection, but few in 




Cun^ y«yt iiJ JMnni 

> fo^ "V+» iW 17-19 


^m Jen ^r,i^tn^(\^!iuf^ 
CVu. W "'/" ^ ^jiArJeti unJ tu^ijaycn. 

,'n fi.■^^t£n■ IjUl ^ Jc* jTUplCtV; OOi^ 
p, vm dm r^ /i.nuuA ^mnun. 

run SCiiJtfn pi eintrn, jlnitnAt^^uJuCa^m, 

^(actayntrikn mil 
CAr. fCr. 


196 The Pennsylvania- Gertnan Society. 

our day agree nor would we dispute the taste and judgment 
of any one. With those however who find the beauty of 
hymns in the high art of poesy, graceful words and in- 
genious flowery style or sounds pleasing to the ears, one 
hopes to win but scant credit through this collection. Such 
will do well to look for these things not here but elsewhere, 
though no innocent use of these things is disparaged. For 
ourselves we chose to aim for what is beautiful before God 
in order that it may meet his favor and glorify Him. With 
Him a pure simplicity is an ornament of beauty; this does 
not mean silliness nor ignorance but a oneness of the heart 
with God, a condition in which the eye of the mind does 
not concern itself with what is pleasing to the world, the 
flesh and evil lusts thereof." This thought influenced their 
choice of selections and gave tone to their entire work. 
Sixty authors are represented. The old Bohemian and 
Moravian hymns sung for many decades by the fathers of 
the faith received special consideration. They themselves 
made the following contributions : 

Dr. Abraham Wagner, hymns : 6, 7, 10, 14, 96, 109, 
139' i73» 19I' 281, 283, 365, 457, 478, 495, 711, 733' 742» 
75I' 756, 787» 754' 789. 800. 802, 821, 822, 826, 832, 833, 
845, 847, 850, 463, 801. 

Balzer Hoffman, hymns; i, 253, 303, 309, 310, 319, 
320, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 374, 383, 571, 572, 
578, 579' 580, 581, 588, 589, 617, 618, 626, 627, 628, 705, 
709, 710, 755, 792, 854, 855, 856, 458, 573. 

Casper Kriebel, hymns: 234, 311, 619, 623, 629, 717, 

Christoph Kriebel, hymns : 492, 714, 715, 716, 742, 745, 

746' 747- 

Christoph Schultz, hymns : 157, 312, 360, 380, 469, 590, 


David Seipt, hymn : 673. 

Bibliography. 197 

George Weiss, hymns: 3, 36, 37, 221, 222, 240, 246, 
247, 248, 252, 321, 422, 423, 468, 473, 486, 509, 532, 592, 
600, 601, 602, 603, 712, 713, 722, 777. 

These constitute 123 numbers, out of a possible 917. 
By the time the second revision had'been finished in 1869, 
only 26 numbers were regarded worthy of being retained, 
a result in harmony with the general tendency to drift away 
from the old moorings. 

1763. Catechism us oder A nfdnglicher Unterrichty Christ- 
licher Glaubens Lehre. Philadelphia, Miller. 

1 77 1. Erlciuterung fiir Herrn Caspar Schwenkfeld^ 
und die Ztigeihanen seiner Lehre. Jauer. Heinrich 
Christ Mullern. 

A part of the title page of this book literally translated 
reads as follows : " An explanation for Casper Schwenk- 
feld and the adherents of his faith relating to many points 
in history and theology which commonly are presented in- 
correctly or passed entirely over, in which their history to 
1740 is briefly told, their confessions of faith are summar- 
ized and the true conditions of the disputes concerning the 
ministry, the holy Scriptures and the glory of the human- 
ity of Jesus Christ are unfolded ; truthfully and simply 
described from approved, credible and many hitherto un- 
published documents and from personal experience, offered 
to the service of all seekers after and lovers of the truth 
by a few of those who sometime ago migrated from Sile- 
sia and now reside in Pennsylvania in North America." 
The necessity for a publication of this kind was felt for 
some time; consequently in the fall of 1768, it was re- 
solved to issue the book. During the following winter 
Christopher Schultz prepared the manuscript and by March 
a printer's copy was in the hands of their friends, the Mora- 
vians, to be forwarded to their European correspondent 

198 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

Heintze at Probsthayn for printing. Heintze received it 
in October, 1769, and, on application for a royal conces- 
sion to print, gave the manuscript to the proper officers for 
examination who did not return the same until July 19, 
1770, with the desired authorization to print. The print- 
ing of the edition of 500 was finished in April, 1771. 
Copies were received in Philadelphia in November, 1772, 
after which they had to be bound by the Schwenkfelder 
book-binder, Hoffman, before they were ready for general 

1772. Dcr Schwenkfelder Glaubens-Bekenntnisz. Im 
Jahr 1718. Jauer. 

1784. Kurze Fragen ueher die Christliche Glaubens- 
Lehre. Philadelphia, Carl Cist. 

1 79 1. Christliche Betrachttmgen ueber die Evangel- 
ische Texte. Durch Erasmum Weichenhan, Germantaun, 
Michael Billmeyer. 

This was a revised edition of the Sultzbach edition of 
1672. Propositions had been made to have it printed be- 
fore the breaking out of the Revolutionary War but on 
account of this it was put off. Christopher Schultz wrote 
the sermons for Whitmonday and Ascension Day. He 
had been instructed even to prepare a postill for the whole 
church year. 

1795. An Inaugural Botanico- Medical Dissertation 071 
the Phytolacca decandra of LinncBiis. By Benjamin 
Schultz, of Pennsylvania, Member of the Philadelphia 
Medical Society. Philadelphia, Thomas Dobson. 

1806. Gcbct-Bilchlein^ Germantaun. Michael Billmj^er. 

1813. JVcucingerichtetes Gesangbuch- Philadelphia. 
Conrad Zentler. (Revised edition of hymnbook of 1762.) 

1816. Dankbare Erinnerung an die Schzvenkf elder in 
JVord America * * * Gorlitz. Heinze. As a slight token 

Early Pennsylvania Imprints. 199 

of gratitude for favors shown to their fathers 1726-34, the 
Schwenkfelders in 1815 gave 163 Reichsthaler to the peo- 
ple of Gorlitz and in relief of their sore distress and suffer- 
ings due to the ravages of the Napoleonic war. This 
sixty-four page book was published by the magistrates 
and councils of Gorlitz as a thank offering for the gift. 

1819. Oecono7nischcs Hans und Kunst-Biich. Von 
Johann Krausz. Allentown, Heinrich Ebner. 

1819. Einige Christliche und Lehrreiche Send-Briefe. 
Schwenkfeld. Allentown, Heinrich Ebner. 

1820. Von dcr Hinunlische Ai'zeney. Schwenkfeld. 
Allentown, Heinrich Ebner. 

1820. An article on the Schwenkfelders was published 
in the Amerikanische Ansichten composed by John Schultz. 

1830. ErldiUeriing fiir Herrn Caspar Schwenckfeld. 
Sumnytaun, E. Benner. (Revision of edition in 1771.) 

1835. Ein christUcher Send-Brief vom Gebet 
Schwenkfeld. Allentown, A. and W. Blumer. 

1836. Comfendtum von Christofh Schultz^ vollendet 
lySj. Philadelphia, Schelly and Lescher. 

1842. Christliche Betrachtungen ueber die Evangelische 
Texte, Erasmus Weichenhan. Allentown, V. und W. 

1844. A History of Religious Denominations published 
by I. Daniel Rupp contains an article on the Schwenk- 
felders by Isaac Schultz. This was republished in the 
Desilver History of 1859. 

1846. Lchr Tractate * * * durch Casper Schzi'cnhfeld. 
Allentown, Blumer and Busch. 

185 1. Constitution * * * wie auch IVebcn-Gcseize * * * 
von Josua Schultz. Allentaun, Guth, Young and Trexler. 

1855. Kurze Fragcn i'tbcr die Christliche Glaitbcns- 
Lehre. Skippackville, J. M. Schunemann. (Third edi- 
tion of Catechism.) 

200 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

1858. Lehrund Ordnungs-Regeln. Von Josua Schultz. 
(Date and place of publication not fully established.) 

1858. The Heavenly Balm and the Divine Physician. 
By Casper Schwenkfeld, translated by Rev. F. R. An.- 
spach, D.D. Baltimore, published by Abraham Heydrick. 

1859. Fi'inf Ahhandlungen aus den Theologischen 
Schrifften von Caspar Schivenchfeldt. Skippackville, J. 
M. Schiinemann & Co. 

i860. Aus/uhrliche Geschichte Kaspar v. Schwenk- 
felds^ und der Schivenkfelder * * * von Oswald Kadel- 
bach. Lauban, vom M. Baumeister. 

1861. Oeffentliche Correspondenzen Zwischen Josua 
Schultz und Daniel Weiser, ifn Jahr 18^8 * * * Lans- 
dale, John Schupe. 

1863. Short questions concerning the Christian Doctrine 
of Faith, by the Reverend Christopher Schultz. Trans- 
lated by Prof. I. Daniel Rupp. Skippackville, J. M. 

1869. Neueingerichtetes Gesang-Buch. Skippackville, 
A. E. Dambly. 

1870. Casper Schwenkfeld and the Schwenkf elders. 
C. Z. Weiser, in Mercersburg Review. 

1874. Schwenkf elders. By P. E. Gibbons, in Pennsyl- 
vania Dutch. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott & Co. 

1875. Glaubens-Lehren und Bekenntnisse der zwei 
ersten Predigern der Schwenkf elder in Amerika. 

1876. Pficht der Eltern gegen ihre Kinder * * * sanimt 
Einleitung, Trauform^und Gebet. Skippack, A. E. Dambly. 

1876. Religious Societies of the Co7mnonwealth. By 
Barclay. London. 

1879. Genealogical Record of the Descendants of the 
Schwenkf elders . By the Rev. Reuben Kriebel, with an 
historical sketch by C. Heydrick. Manayunk, Josephus 


^l^^y^T^ •' maUi ^^^^ '-•^'^ ^.V.^ ^^Tr)^ 

■•■ * , Jubyl;^filS;fSS-i 





Literature. 201 

1882. Constitution of the Schwenkf elder soeiety as also 
By-Lazvs. Skippack, A. E. Dambly. 

1886. Der Schwenkf elder Glaubens-Bekeniitnisz * * * 
im Jahr iyi8. 

1889. Casper Schwenkf eld. By Jesse Yeakel, in a Ger- 
man Quarterly. 

1894. Coniite Bericht. 

1898. Formula for the Government and Discipline of the 
Schwenkfelder Church. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Co. 

1898. The Schzv enkf elders. By Howard M. Jenkins, in 
Friends' Quarterly Examiner . 

1898. Americana Germanica published the Historische 
Anmerckungen and School documents of 1764. 

1899. "^^^^ Schwenkf elders. By H. Y. S. (Joseph 
Henry Dubbs) in College Student. 

1902. Formula for the Government and Discipline of 
the Schzv enkf elder Church. Revised edition. Philadel- 
phia, J. B. Lippincott Co. 

Simple justice demands in this connection a reference to 
the researches and labors of Ober Lehrer Heinrich August 
Friedrich Schneider. Born in Posen in 1806, he studied 
for the ministry but on account of sickness, changed his 
plans and became teacher of English in the Konigliche 
Real Schule, Berlin in 1842, which place he filled until 
a nervous trouble compelled him to resign in 1872. His 
studies in theology led him to read church history and thus 
he came to be interested in Schwenkf eld before his stu- 
dent days were over. To 1875, when he sold his immense 
and invaluable Schwenkfeldiana, he devoted all his spare 
time to this line of study. He published a history of Lieg- 
nitz with reference to the Schwenkfelders and an account 
of early Schwenkfelder hymn writers. He had collected 
material for an extensive biography of Schwenkfeld. His 

202 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

library was scattered by the sale of 1875, a part being 
bought by the Hartford Theological Seminary. To his 
dying day he had a warm heart for his chosen line of 
study and loved to talk of it. 

These remarks may fittingly be brought to a close by a 
brief reference to the most recent, most elaborate and most 
exhaustive work in the line of literature relating to the 
Schwenkfelders. In 1884 the publication of a Corpus 
Schwenkfeldianorum was undertaken under the editorship 
of President C. D. Hartranft of the Hartford Theological 
Seminary. An edition of the works of Schwenkfeld is in 
preparation which aims to furnish : 

1. A critical text, various readings, the original margi- 
nalia, explanatory notes and full apparatus. The notes, the 
preface, the prolegomena, etc. , to be in the English language. 

2. The chronological order of the documents without 
regard to encyclopaedic arrangement. 

3. The text, in smaller type, of all unpublished letters 
addressed to Schwenkfeld or Crautwald, or that make 
mention of them. If previously edited, references to the 
editions will be given in the text. The text of all acts or 
historical documents hitherto unpublished which refer to 
them, will be printed in a similar way. 

4. The portraits and pictures in connection with the per- 
sons in the history, in the year of their appearance. 

5. Facsimile specimens of the MSS. 

6. A full bibliography of the literature. 

7. Indices of persons, places and subject matter to each 

8. A history in English of the Reformation by the 
Middle Way. This is already in course of preparation. 
Although it is to be published after the text has appeared, 
it will nevertheless be numbered as the first volume of the 

Concluding Remarks. 

CCORDING to the official notice from 
the Society the assigned task in the 
present undertaking was "to write a 
paper on the Schwenkfelders especially 
with regard to their history in this 
Commonwealth." The author could, 
therefore, not indulge in the pleasant 
pastime of tracing out and singing the 
glories of all the lines of descent. To 
do so would mean at the least a search through Canada 
and through the northern tier of States beginning with 
Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey and Maryland, 
westward through the different commonwealths to the 
Pacific Ocean. The descendants were and are found 
in all walks of life — some even having done time in 
prison cells. An attempt indeed was made at collating a 
list of prominent descendants, with a view of inserting the 
same in this history but for a variety of reasons this had 
to be abandoned. The classification of the skilled pro- 
fessions pursued by these would show eminent lights m 
callings like the following: Artisans, artists, authors, 
doctors, editors, inventors, judges, governor, lawyei^, leg- 
islators, ministers, missionaries, manufacturers, musicians, 


204 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

merchants, presiding elders, bishops, president and pro- 
fessors of theological seminaries, professors in colleges and 
seminaries, teachers, soldiers both in the ranks and as 

The Genealogical Recoi'd of the Descendants of the 
Schzvenkfelders published in 1879, ^ niost excellent work 
in itself, though not free from error and far from being ex- 
haustive, gives in addition to the Schwenkfelder names of 
1734, more than 200 patronymics brought by intermarriage 
into connection with the lines of Schwenkfelder descend- 
ants. The descendants of Tobias Hartranft hold family 
reunions where hundreds assemble each year. Of the 
descendants of David Wagener who wandered to the Bush- 
kill in Northampton Co., there are hundreds in Easton 
alone to-day. Jemima Wilkinson the religious enthusiast 
and impostor, drew David Wagener, the son of Melchior, 
to New York, where the descendants are numerous and 
prominent. Settlements in various western states might 
also be enumerated. 

With respect to church connection, descendants are found 
in the Catholic Church and in many branches of the 
Protestant church, particularly, United Brethren, Congre- 
gational, Evangelical, Lutheran, Reformed, Presbyterian, 
Baptist, Methodist, Mennonite and also even in the broad 
" Pennsylvania." 

Though the present body of " Schwenkfelders" can 
claim scant credit for the high honors won by their distant 
brotherhood they may at least with them rejoice in the 
common pious ancestry and thank God for what He has 
done for the children through and on account of the 
parents, remembering that the mercy of the Lord is from 
everlasting to everlasting upon them that fear Him, and 
His righteousness unto children's children. 






Note by Editor : — For various obvious reasons this letter and the fol- 
lowing marriage contract are carefully reproduced as to spelling, etc 
The italicized words were written in Latin script, the rest in German. 

<^Ofy ein lie&er alter greunb ©eBaftian! ®§ ift mir cine 3eit ^er 
'^^ offtmolS in meinem ©emiiti) getoefen id) folte bic^ biirc^ 
©df)rei6en ctlirfjer rii3tf)igcr Stiiffc crinnccn, bietiicil luir Inngc 
3eit fo biel id) U)ci^ aufridjtige greiinbe getoefen [inb, bamit id) 
metner feitB boc^ aud) bie ^tlid)ten timet Sreunbfd)iQft erfiillen, 
unb mid^ ber ©d^ulb eTttloben mod)te berer ic^ mic^ bitrd) @c^tt)ei= 
gen tI)eiI^Qftig ma^en rooirbe, unb sugleid^' aud) too moglid) bir in 
beinem SSerrennen nii^Iid) fetin mod)te. ©o ni^m§ bod) Quf (ofjne 
bir toeiter i)iel Ilmftanbe boraumol^Ien) al§> bon eineni alten 
greunbe, toQ§ bir in folgenben Beilen au§' toe{)mittl)igem ^^er^en 
aU ein ©^iegel borgel^alten toirb. 

^d) r^abe mit bir 311 9fieben qI§ mit einem SWitgliebe eine^ 
^Qufeg bQ§ ben ^ntooI)nern be§ efiemoB fre^en ^^ennfljlDnntn @e= 
fe^e gieBt, unb biefelBen (55e[e^e and) burc^ (Setoolt bcr SBaffen, 
Stroffen, ©efangnijje, 2Iu!§fd)Iiffung alter Biirgerlid^en Stec^te, 
of)ne ba'^ fie il^r ©etoifjeu Slatl^ fragen biirffen, ben Befagten ^n= 
toofinern aufstoingct toie foId)e§ nun bie letst^erige Xcft=3lcte Be= 
geuget, unb baS^ 9Serfa{)ren gegen Unfd)ulbige @etoijfeul)affte Seute 
nun f)ie bet) un§ au»toeifel. ®o if)r nun aU OJc^rcfcntantcn ber 
(iintool^ner "^NcnnftjIunntcnS tooUet angefeJien fe^n, unb bon roegen 
if)rer agiren toodct fo i)aht ifir unumganglid) and) bie ^^flidjt auf 
cud) liegen, bafe il)r baS^ toal^re too{)I aUcr unb jebcr Glaffen befag» 
ter ©intoofincr, fo gut aB cuer .©igcueS an eurem ^ertjen 'i)abt 
unb nid)t bie cine ^artf)et) burd) llntcrbriidung bcr Stnbcnt eT!)e= 
bet, fo fernc fie e§ nid)t burd} 33ofer)afftigc Untreue ober 2aftcrl)af= 
tigfeit Dcrfd)ulbet. 2}a bu nun gar tvoi)l toeiffcft ba\i IJJcnnfl)!' 

{ 206) 


Draft of Letter by Reverend Christopher 
ScHULTz TO Sebastian Levan, Member of As- 
sembly, Dated, Hereford, August 12, 1777. 
(Seepage 155.) 

(Translation.) My dear old friend Sebastian : For some 
time it has often been in my mind that I ought in writing 
to remind you of a few necessary points, since for a long 
time we have been upright friends so far as I know in 
order that I on my part may fulfill the duties of true 
friendship and free myself of the blame of which by my 
silence I would make myself guilty and that at the same 
time if possible I may be serviceable to you in your erring 
conduct. Without my further detailing to you many par- 
ticulars, receive therefore what is held before you mirror- 
like in the following lines as coming from an old friend 
out of a sorrowing heart. 

I wish to speak with you as with a member of a House 
which gives laws to the citizens of a once free Pennsyl- 
vania and also without taking counsel of their consciences 
forces these laws upon the said inhabitants by force of 
arms, fines, imprisonments, exclusion from all civil rights 
as the recent Test-Act and the proceedings against inno- 
cent, conscientious people with us here shows. If you 
would be looked upon as representatives of the citizens of 
Pennsylvania and would act in their behalf, you inevitably 
have the duty resting upon you to take to heart the true 
welfare of each and every class of said inhabitants as well 
as your own and not to lift up one party through the sup- 
pression of the others in so far as they have not occasioned 

( 207 ) 

2o8 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

Ijonten onfanglid^ 'to^^ ©igentl^um tear (6et)be§ in STnfefiung bes 
Sonbeg qI§ aitdj bofe 9te(^t§ ber Stegierung) folc^eter Seute, bie ba 
©etDtffenfialber bebenfen tragen anbere 9}?enf(f)eTt gu tobten; tote 
Qud)' fe^r Bebadjtig finb, fid) on 6t)bc§ ©tatt in ©tmo? einjulaffen, 
tooron fie nic^t genitng getrife radren 'ba'^ fie in ber 2Sa]^rf)eit unb 
Qud) Beftcinbig boBet) bleiben fonnten, unb bo bn gugleid) meifeft 
'iio,^ bergl. Seute nod) bie 9)?enge I)ie borfionben finb, ja einen 
•groffen tl^eil ber Slnfe^nlidiften, unb hiolgefeffenen unb UnBefc^oI= 
tenen ©intoofinern Qu§mad)en. ©o fragt man ja toolnot^hpenbig 
toenn man eure 5Xcten anfie^et, unb sugleid) fiif)Iet toie fie appli= 
cirt toerben. ^abt il^r euc^ ben tool \m^^\^ in euren ^erfeen on 
biefer Seute ©tott geftelfet, unb ifire getoiffenS Slngelegenlieiten al§ 
eure eigne Qngefer)en unb rc^rcfcntttt? ©ber toeifetS fid)§ nid)t 
bielmefir au§ ^o?p, i()r fie fiir ben nid)t^ toertl^igften 5tu§ferid)t l^al' 
let, ben if)r oufs dufferfte untertretten, unb qu§ bem Sanbc ber- 
bringen tooltet? ^ft§ nid)t olfo, toorum lieget mein ^Better ©eorge 
SlrieBel in ©afton ©efangnife? Unb mufe fid^ fagen laffen toenn er 
nic^t ®d)todret toie i^r tooHet, fo fdnne er eiier nid)t I)erau§ !om- 
men, qI§ bife man bie ©einen mit SSerlaffung aEer @iiter gu ben 
geinben iiberliefert? SBorum Beraubct iJ)r un§ benn aEer Siirger= 
lichen unb @etoiffen§=t5ret)]f)eiten, 'iid'^ nic^t§ me!)r foE Unfer fe^n, 
nid)t mef)r auf @otte§=@rbboben ^anbeln unb toanbein biirffen 
unb alfo gar nit^t leben foUen? blofe aHein toeif toir bebenden 
toa§ 3U unfer ©eelen unb @emiitf)§ 9tuf)e uv^ Srieben bienlid^ 
fet)n mdge. SBeil toir fac^en nid)t befd)tooren toolten bie je^t bon 
dufeerfter Ungetoifel^eit finb ob toir tocrben beftdnbig babet) blei- 
^tv. fdnnen, unb toir follen un§ bod^ bariiber berfd^toijren. S)ife 
ift ia bo(^ bie ©umma bon biefer ©oc^e, "iiOi^ ibr un§ l^ie ©ad)en 
3umutf)et unb bet) SSerluft aEe§ toa§ einem in ber SSelt lieb fet)n 
fan aufleget, 'i^o?^ nie fein ^ranne ja fein S^artar nod) ^iirfe biel* 
toeniger eine ©briftlic^e 9^egierung in borigen 3eiten geforbert 
l^ot 'iifx^ man nemlid) unter todf)renber bi^igficn ^tiege unb bor 
STuSgang ber ©ac^e, einem borigen $erren abfd^todren folte. 

Scruples of Conscience. 209 

it through malicious unfaithfulness or wickedness. Since 
you indeed know quite well that Pennsylvania was origin- 
ally the property (both in regard to the land as to the right 
of government) of those people who on account of scruples 
of conscience have misgivings against killing other people 
and who also consider very carefully before entering, in 
the place of an oath, upon a course concerning which they 
can not be fully assured that they can continue in the 
truth and steadfast in it, and as you at the same 
time know that of these people a large number are 
still here and constitute a great part of the most respect- 
able, the well-established, and irreproachable citizens. A 
necessary question when one considers your acts and feels 
how they are applied is this : — Have you in your hearts 
at any time put yourself in the place of these people and 
viewed and represented their matters of conscience as your 
own? Or is it not shown that you consider them the most 
worthless sweepings which you wish to suppress to the ut- 
most and crowd out of the land? If this is not the case 
why is my cousin George Kriebel imprisoned in the Easton 
jail and must let himself be told that if he does not swear 
the way you want him to, he can not be set free until his 
own arc delivered to his enemies with abandonment of all 
his property. Why do you rob us of all civil liberty and 
freedom of conscience in so much that we are to hold 
nothing as our own, we are not allowed to trade on God's 
earth, or move about or even to live — merely because we 
take into consideration what may be helpful to the rest and 
peace of our souls and minds ; because we are unwilling 
to take oath concerning things that are of the utmost un- 
certainty whether we can remain true to the same and yet 
we are to bind ourselves by oath. This is the sum of the 
whole matter that you expect things of us in this respect 

2IO The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

@icf)e bid) bocf) in bcr §iftoricn boriger S^il^ert urn bit inir^t nic 
feine bcrgleidien Q)cUnyfen§ JJ^QvanncQ nitflnei[en fonnen. %\i etft)Q 
megen ©pionen, SSerrdtf^er ober bergleidjen 9)JaIefnctor§ zS^'mo.^ 
5u tl^itn notfiig gelDefert trie bn§ '4>rcnni6Ic Surer Seft 9tcte faget 
toarum berlDirfelt il^r benn itiildiulbige Scute mit biefer i^rer 
©Iraffen? Ober ino ift ber ber un§ joldjcr .^tirtbel mit ')Sit^i 6e= 
geifjcu fan, Iq§ if)n nuftretten? ©inb tuir nid)t immer tDiUig ge» 
iDefen unfere bolle ^ro^Jortion on offerttlic^cn Soften sutragen fo= 
tiiel <x{% mit ©cmiffeu, nemlid) or)ne Dftiiftung gum ^obldilagen 
fet)n fan? SSie fomt§ \}^\i i^r nur immer ^tnc^ subeualjmen i^a&t, 
ober ba|3 mir§ unterm Si^ittel 3'inc iw Be3aI)Ien tiaben masi Don un§ 
geforbert roirb? ©et)b il^r ba unfcre gctreue 9{c^jrcfcntantcn? 

D mcin lieBer greunb! ,^d) Bitte bid) um @otte§ miCeu &e= 
bende bid) meil§ nod^ 3eit ift '^v^ magft lnof)I jeist bettden, bu bi[t 
mir ein fdjoner greunb, bofe bu mit fo groBen Bragen an mid) 
fommeft. 2IBer 3f6er e§ Bleibt bir fiirmaf)r nid)t auj[cn, unb ic^ 
irunfd)e bciner ©eelen bon .^ertsen h^"^ e§ nid)t su fpdt gefd]cf)e, 
^\x tuirft t)or beme bcme mir aHe 9?e(^en[d}afft geBen miiffen einmal 
tJ^euer antmorten mii[fen, oB bu Sljme o.\x6) ®ie ©einen mit Hnter= 
briidung Berii^rt l^nBeft, bte uemlid^ il^re ^offnung unb 3Scrtrauen 
auf ^sl)n [tefieu, bie fid) fd)euen Sf)n 3u Beleibigen, m\^ bie fid^ 
fiirc^ten fiir feinem SSort. 

Sf)r fet)b nun ouf hQ& W\X\% SSBefen fo erpic^t, al§ toenng ber 
cin^ige 'Q^\x% mare ber un» ©olbirett fonne, unb alle§ anbere 
mirb mit f)od)fter ^Scroditnng ja ©traffe angefef)en. 9^un "i^w mirft 
bid) bod) Q>.\\^ noc^ erinnern fonnen, ho,^ mir get)dret I>aBen, ho,^ 
oHeS in ber §anb be§ ^od>ften ftcl^et, unb ba|3 man fid) feinem 
©c^u^ bon gantsem ^er^en folte onbertrouen, benn er fi3nne unb 
folic ©djiitjen oHc bie gu i^m flicljcn, unb berlaffcn fid) nid)t auf 
if)re ©tcirfe. 3SoIan mer§ nun bon .^cr^en ^reu unb ^^cblid^ 
mit feinem Sanbe met)nct; 3Bof)in ja moI)in unb 3u ma§ foH cin 
foId)er in biefer jammerlid) Bebrangten 3eit flicfien ober ma? bor 

Burden of Test Act. 211 

and impose them upon us with loss of all that one holds 
dear in the world, things that no tyrant, nor tartar nor turk 
much less a Christian government in former times de- 
manded, namely that in the midst of the hottest warfare 
and before the conclusion of the matter a former lord is to 
be denied under oath. Consider the history of former 
times and you will not be able to show a like tyranny over 
conscience. If action indeed was necessary with respect 
to spies, traitors or the like malefactors as the preamble of 
your Test Act declares, why do you implicate innocent 
people in their punishment? Or where is he who can 
justly accuse us of such things? let him step forth. Have 
we not always been willing to bear our full proportion of 
the public burdens as far as might be done conscientiously, 
that is without preparation for manslaughter. Why is it 
that you are continually speaking of fines or, that what is 
demanded of us must be paid under the name fine? Are 
you here our true representatives? 

O my dear friend ! I beseech you for God's sake, con- 
sider while it is yet time. You may indeed now think, 
you are a nice friend that you come to me with such un- 
civil questions. But, but you will indeed not escape, and 
I heartily wish for the sake of your soul that it may not 
be too late, that you will have to answer dearly before 
him before whom we must all render account, whether 
you have oppressed God's own who place their hope and 
trust in Him, who are afraid to offend Him and who fear 
his word. 

You are now so passionately attached to the militia sys- 
tem, as if it were the only protection that could save us 
and all else is looked down upon with the highest con- 
tempt and even punishment. You can doubtless still re- 
call that we have heard that all things are in the hands of 

212 The Petinsylvania- German Society. 

9lu[tung foH cr am forberften gebroucii'en unb fid) brein einfleiben 
obcr mie i^\xi cr am Beften cjcrctrcn. 

2)cein licBer greunb! ©telte bir§ bocf) einmol erne btertel 
©tunbe aI[o bor; Sii fal^eft einem in jeincm berborgenen 2BindfeI 
liegen bor fcinem ©ott mit T^eiffen 2;i)rancn fein imb jeine§ 2SoI(ie§ 
(Siinben ben grofjert ^errfc^er beid^ten uub befennen unb um be^ 
einige§ 35crfi3I)ner§ itnb 9D^ittIer§ iDillcn bor bag Sanb um ^orm* 
]f)ert3igfcit unb SSerfc^onen flefien, ja um bie ©rneuerung unb 33ef= 
ferung bcr ^cr^en oEer ^ntoofmer ber and) au§ bem ©efiifjl ber 
mitlcibcnbcn Siebe, ba @ott alle 2)cen[d)cn licbet, if)nen Seben unb 
Cbcm gtcbct, fcinem ?ccben - 2}Zenfd)cn ba§ Seben neljmcn moltc. 
Su faf)cjt abcr auf ber anbcrn ©cite cinen unferen gemo()nIid}en 
9WiIi^=^itrfd)en cr fet) Officier ober ©emeiner in jcincr orbitiaircn 
^pofitur mic bic mciftcn fid) auf3icf)en unb feine 3[)?ilitarifd]en (3e» 
fd)dfte au§rid)tcn, mie meit unfere 9JJiIi^cn rcid)en; 'i^Oi modjtc i^ 
benn gerne bcincg ©cmiffenS urtljeil I^oren, mcldjeg bon bicfen 
bet)bcn bcr bcfte SanbeS - ^efd)u^er fet)? %6) urtl^eile jener tf)ut fo 
bid 3um roabrcn ®c^ut3 al§ bon bicfen cine ganlic 53ntattii)n nic^t 
ausridjtet, unb mcr tccife ob bic§ nidjt onflopfet bofe bu mir fd)ier 
ted^t gcben foltcft? 'Wxiii mir ift§ al§ mcnn id) bir fagen borffte 
ol^ne ^^5^ bu gar bid an ber SBaljrfjcit smcifdteft foId)cr S(rt San= 
be^^befd)it^er gicbt§ nod) in unfcrm armen ^^ennft)Ibanien bie mit 
il)rcm ej:crciercn 3)nar fein SBcfcn nod) Sluffd^eng mad)cn bie aber 
eigentlid) bet ^odjfte in feiner JRoIIe \)^i unb i^m moIbe!annt finb, 
baj5 fie 3U fcinem ^ccrlager geI)oren, ber sal^Ict ilf)re ^f)rdnen unb 
faffet fie in fein ©ad. 

£) I^iite bid)i mein lieber ©ebaftian, Ijiitc bid), \i<x^ bu fcinem 
bon bicfen fianbe§=3Satern unb ©treittern be§ ^crren einige^ ScQb 
gufiigeft, mic id) Iet)ber 3?ermutf)e "i^o^^ mit ctlid)en euret Ici3t]^cri= 
ger 3Icten gcfd)cf)cn ift^ met gegen fie angcf)et r)at§ mit il)ren §crrcn 
3u lf)un. Senn ic^ mufe mein 3SermutI)en nid)t betl^alten 'i^o!^ nem» 
ltd) bicfer 35ortreffIid)cn 3(rt Scute, mclir auf bcr ©cite 3U finbcn 
finb bie cure ?fctcn unb ©traffen bdegen, mcber auf ber ©cite fo 

Objections to Military Service. 213 

the Highest and that one ought to entrust himself wholly 
into His care, since he can and will protect all who flee to 
him and do not depend on their own strength. 

Now then, whoever holds true and honest intentions con- 
cerning his country, whither, yea, whither, and to what 
shall such a one flee in the present pitiable, distressful 
times or with what armor shall he shield or clothe himself 
or what is the best way of "exercising" for him? My 
dear friend, imagine for a quarter of an hour the mat- 
ter in this way ; you see one lying in his secret chamber 
before his God with hot tears confessing and acknowl- 
edging the sins of himself and his people to the great 
ruler and pleading for mercy and forbearance in behalf of 
his land through the only atoner and mediator, yea, for 
the renewal and betterment of the hearts of all inhabi- 
tants and who out of the feelings of compassionate love 
because ? God loves all men and gives them life and 
breath, would not take the life of any fellowman. On the 
other side you see one of our ordinary militia fellows, be 
he officer or private, in his ordinary posture as the most of 
them pose and performing his military services as far as 
our militia reach. I should like to hear the judgment of 
your conscience which of the two is the best protector of 
his country? I judge the former does more for true pro- 
tection than a whole battalion of the latter can accomplish 
and who knows but that this appeals to you that you must 
admit that I am right. And I feel that I may say to you 
without your seriously doubting the truth of it that of this 
class of defenders of the country some are still to be found 
in our poor Pennsylvania who indeed make no ado or sensa- 
tion with their '* exercising" but whom the highest has in 
books and who are well-known as belonging to his army, 
who also counts their tears and puts them into his bottle. 

214 "^^^^ Pennsylvania- German Society. 

ber Srommct folgcn. ^dj fage mefir, bnBet) it^ ben Ic-^tern i'^ren 
9fntf)C!l nid)t abftrcidie. ^^d) tniH nur fagcn ein tDQlirer 9tcprcfen= 
tant beS SonbeS I)at fid) Don @ott imb ©etDtffenS ja S^ei^t imb 
58iIIigfeit icegen berer (SiniDol^'ier bie @etDiffen§l^Qrbe in oHerlet) 
Si^fjfil'IWifcitcn nid)t eingefiGn jo treu unb forgfaltig ansunefimen 
fotool qR^ berer anbern ; unb bie @eh3ijfen§=3ret)]^eit tft i^nen and) 
burd) offentlid^e 9lcta unb ^acta fo 6igentl)umlid), bo^ fie il^nen 
nid)t fan enttoenbt merben o!f)ne ben fd^nobeften SiauB 3u Begefien. 

©ine fretimillige 3}ZiIi^ laffe id^ in ifirent geftorigen SSerti^e/ 
al§ Qurf) bon Seuten beren STnliegen ge]^i3ret cfttmtrt unb reprc= 
fcnttrt 3u toerben, oBer bo§ Bifel^erige BetreiBert be§ 2)^ili^ 2Befen§ 
ift ret)ber mefir eine DueHe unberfonlic^en ^affe§, 9^et)be§ unb 
fd)dbrid)er uncinigfeit getoefen toeber ho!^ e§ unfere llmftanbe ge* 
Beffert ficitte, unb \)Qii sugleid^ hoA Canb in gar llngel^eure ©d)ul= 
'b'iXK gereumet; ja lt)ie id^' finbe fo ift e§ bie SSerl^wberung h<:x^ eine 
ftef)enbe Slrmee nid^t i^inldnglidfi ^oX mogen suftanbe geBrad^t iner^ 
ben fonnen. SSobon ein jeber SSerniinftiger bon Slnfang leid^t f)at 
fe^ien fonnen, "bo^^ too ^tieg gefiifiret toerben mufe, fo fan nur 
buret) biefe nid)t aBer bnrd£) bie W\\\% t'cmvA naml^affte§ au§ge= 
fiif)ret toerben, unb bo l^iitten aud^ alle 6intDoI)ner $iiBfd^ gleii^ 
5Int]^ieiI unb ol^ue borrourff tragen fonnen. StBer hxx^ innerlid^e 
SSerberBen unter un§ felBft folte un§ freffen. S)a ift biefe§ ein ge= 
fd)ifft ^nftrument haivi. 2)a nimmt man einem mit ^ro^ unb 
Oeroalt £25 fammt Unf often fo biel al§ man tnill unb gieBtS ©i= 
3tem ber bor 8 2Boc£)!en SDienft annel^men toiH unb gieBt il^m nod^ 
£5 Bet)fcit§. 2So tnerben nun bie 3:!]5oren gu finben feljn bie fiir 
20 Xfjaler auf 3 ^al^r S)ienft nel^men hxa einem Bei^ fold^em 2>^ili^ 
BetreiBen in einem Sat)r £150 merben fonnen? SBenn fold^ Sing 
bem Sdnbe nid)t 9Jutn Bringet, fo mdfe id) nid^t toaS e§ nid^t er« 
Irngen fonte. SrHcin biefe 3:;reiBer berlaffcn fid^ barauf ho^^ bie 
guten Seutc nid)t toiebcr fed)ten toerben unb faf)ren f)odE) E)er. SCBer 
ber ^od^fte mirb fie fd)on miffen 3u finben. 

2Son ber 3^cft=9lctc toeifetS nun f)ie bie ©rfal^rung unb h^x^ @e« 

Scruples of Conscience. 215 

O, guard yourself, my dear Sebastian, guard yourself 
that you may not cause any sorrow to any of these fathers 
of the land and warriors of the Lord as I, alas, surmise has 
happened through several of your recent acts — whoever 
assails them must reckon with their Lord. For I must 
not withhold my suspicion, namely, that of this excellent 
class of people more are to be found on the side of those 
who condemn your acts than on the side of those who 
follow the drum. I say more in order that I may not de- 
prive the latter of their share. I will merely say that a 
true representative of the land must espouse before God 
and conscience, yea for the sake of right and propriety 
the cause of those inhabitants who on account of scruples 
of conscience do not enter into all the activities as honestly 
and carefully as that of the others, and freedom of con- 
science is theirs so specifically by public acts and agree- 
ments that they can not be deprived of it without the most 
iniquitous robbery. 

To a voluntary militia I will concede its proper value as 
being also of people whose solicitude deserves to be es- 
teemed and represented. The management of the militia 
hitherto prevailing has, alas, been a source of irreconcila- 
ble hatred, envy and injurious discord much more than a 
cause of improvement of our condition and at the same 
time has cast the land into enormous debts and as I learn 
it has been the hindrance that a standing army could not 
be adequately established. Any person of reason could 
easily foresee from the beginning that where war must be 
carried on, telling work can only be accomplished by these 
but not through the militia and here happily all citizens 
could without offence have taken part. But internal de- 
struction amongst ourselves was to devour us and this has 
become a fitting instrument thereto. Twenty-five pounds 

2i6 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

flip ha^ bobiircf) QUer Sofei^eit, grebel, 9?quB unb 2)?utlf)miIIen 
S:f)iir unb %^ox ongeln toeit aufgeti^an tft, foldjcn on ben ftillen 
itnfdf)ulbigen geh)iffeTif)afften Seitten oI)ne ©d£)eu unb ©d^nm in 
biefem unferm 2Bertf)cn Sonbe onSsnuben, [a etltd)e ber S^orfte^ier 
ber ©efe^en laben bie i]^re§ gletd)en ®inne§ sum Xtnrecf)t finb tool 
offentlirf) hain ein, @ott ©rbarme c§ unb ©teiire bod] ben 5re= 
bel! ©oU nidjt bie Obrigfeit @otte§ ©tott f)ie 33erlretten ber on 
ber Xugenb einen SBoIgefoHeTt unb on aCer llntugenb cinen ©reuel 
f)Qt? ^a ift fie nic^t sum <&d)u^ ber grommen unb gur ©traffe 
ber 93i3fen eingefe^t? ®oId]e§ toirb er bereinft in oiler ©trenge 
bon iS^ren ©eelen forbern, ber ba oiler 28elt 9vid)tcr ijt in @cred)= 

^'eine ?^^rcc^oIbcr finb toir nic^t melir; giir feine 3eugen Iof= 
fen fie un§ nid)t melir gelten; bon unferm Sonbe foHen toir nid)t 
fc^reiteii bi§ man un§ jum ^oloc ober in bie 2BiIbe ©ee joget; ©in 
jeber mog un§ fc^Iogen, geiffein, berliol^nen, troctiren toie ber 
©oton e§ il^m eingeben fan fo finben inir bet) je^iger Dbrigfeit 
feine $iilffe nod) ©d^u^ onberS oI§ bofe fie un§ in fid)ere§ @e= 
fongnife ftefft bofelbft gu berfdjmod^ten. Unb bo§ offeS borum 
bofe toir burd)' einen offentlic^en 6t)b, ober on ©t)be§ ©tott boS 
nid)t berf^rec^en ober befi^roeren tooHen, n)o§ rt)ir nid^t toiffen fon= 
nen ob tnirS moglid) toerben I^olten fonnen, unb olfo of)ne (Setoif^ 
fen§ ^efleffung nic^t gefd^elien fan. 

D iiberbende bod) biefe ©ad)en unb merde um ©otteS toilteTi 
ft)a§ il)r gemadjt l^obt, unh onberts el^e bie ^anb be§ ^od^ften eudf) 
erf)ofd)et unb oI)ne ©d^eiien brein fd)Iogen i'i)ui. Ob id] nun gleic^ 
um ha^ meinige fame fo molte id) bod) nidjt um 10 beiner foftbaren 
.©ftoten meine ^anb in biefen ungered)ten ^onbeln fioben. ^d) 
gel)e 99^orgen nod) ^?^ilnbcl))f)ic um 3U felieit ob biefen Unrotl) 
bon bort ou§ nidjt fan (Sinljalt gefc^eljen, benn fo fonnen mir nidjt 
leben. ^nstoifd^en l^a^Q ic^i bicf) nod) einft fold) geftolt erinnern 
ftioGen benfeft bit id) more in ettoo unredfjt bron, fo meife mid) bocf) 
aud) in freunbfc^offt be§ beffern on, id^ merbe e§ in aCer fiiebe on* 























Concerning the Test Act. 217 

with expenses are by force and violence taken from one 
and given to another who will accept eight weeks' service 
with an additional bounty of five pounds. Where may 
the fools be found who would accept twenty dollars on three 
years' service when by such military economy £150 may 
be had in a year? If such things will not bring ruin to 
our country, I do not know what it may not endure. These 
inciters count on it that the good people of the land will 
not fight against them, but the Highest will know how to 
punish them. 

Concerning the Test Act, experience and sentiment show 
that by it door and gate are opened wide to all manner of 
vanity, robbery, iniquity and mischief to carry out the same 
on quiet, innocent, conscientious people without fear or 
shame in this our worthy land, yea, several of the execu- 
tives of the laws publicly encourage in such conduct those 
who with them are equally inclined to wrong-doing. May 
God have mercy and restrain the iniquity. Shall not the 
government here take the place of God to whom virtue is 
well-pleasing and all vice an abomination. Yea, is it not 
established to protect the good and to punish the evil? For 
this their souls will be called to account at the great day in 
all strictness by him who is the judge of the whole world in 

We are freeholders no more ; as witnesses we are ac- 
cepted no more ; we are not to step from our own land lest 
we be driven to Howe or into the wild sea ; Every one may 
beat, scourge, deride, abuse us as Satan can inspire him 
and we shall receive from the present government no help 
nor protection other than that we are placed in secure im- 
prisonment there to languish. And all this because we 
will not by public oath or its substitute promise or vow that 
which we do not know whether we are able to fulfill and 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

nefime'n, ber irf) nod) berl^arre, bein SieBe fc^ulbiger ^^^eunb unb 
tDoImunfdjer. ^crcforb b. 12. 5fug. 1777. 

^. ©. SSenn bit gerne h)tl[t fo fenbe mir mit bem VleBer^ 
bringer biefe^ ^nlJtb 9!Jfef(^ter meinc glDei Sud)Ietn toieber bie icf) 
bir einiTiQl SeF)iien§ SBeife Brod^te; ba toir notft frct)e Seute h)a= 
ren; STBer nod) ben jefeigen 9?ec^ten borff id) bir fie nid)t it)ieber» 
forbern. ©et) Don mir famt beinem SBeibe fier^Iidi gegriifjet 

Concerning the Test Act. iic^ 

hence can not be done without pollution of conscience. 
O, consider these things and for God's sake reflect what 
you have done and change it before the hand of the Highest 
overtakes you and fearlessly punishes you. Were I even 
to lose my own, I would not for ten such rich estates as 
yours be partaker in these unrighteous actions. To-mor- 
row I shall go to Philadelphia to see whether from that 
quarter restraint of this iniquity may be had for thus we 
can not live. In the meantime I wished in this way to call 
your attention to these things. If you think I have erred 
in any respect in friendliness show me what is better and 
I shall accept it in love. 
I remain 

your friend and well wisher 

Chr. Schultz. 
Hereford, Aug. 12, 1777. 

P. S. If it be agreeable to you, send with the messenger 
who delivers this, David Meschter, my two books again 
which I brought you at one time by way of a loan when 
we were still free people, but according to present rights I 
may not ask them again of you. Hearty greetings to you 
and your wife. Vale. 

25on bcr 33efrn.3ung, fo bie .<?>«"i3=2Sater notl^ig ac^ten, nn bte- 
jenige gu t^itn, fo bie Slrouungen itnter iin§ begel^ren geleiftet gu 

2)er ^crr loffe e§ il^m toofirgefallen, unb 311 feiner e^r gerei* 

D^odibem iinfcre 33orfQr)ren unb ©Itcrn, fo ©d)lDenc!feIber ge= 
natmt in 2^eutfd)Innb, firf) mit feiner ^ortfiet) in ber Se^re Tjaben 
fiinnen bergleic^en nocf) bereinigen, unb olfo tuegen berfelbigen 
bieles ItngemadE) erieiben itnb erbulben miiffcn, bie Qei)t and) nid^t 
offentlid) t^fi^Gen biirfften, unb i^nen enblid) gar fein 3ufIud)t=Drt 
mefir gugelaffen murbe. ©o entfc^Ioffen fie fid), Ijicrein nad] 
^ennfQlbanien (auf S^odirid^t ber @etoiffen§=Srei)f)eit QlII)icr) gu 
ge()en, toeldjeS fie 3lnno 1734 get^an. Unb toeilen bie Sel^re baju 
fie fid), unb and} mir un§ nod), Befennen, boS ein^ige $auBt=©tude 
tft, tuas un§ bon anbem SSoIdern unterfd)eibet, unb olfo un§ f)ie= 
mit 3U einem Befonbern (ober bon onbern abgefc^iebenem) 35oIde 
mad)t: ©o gebiif^retS un§ ha^ toir $aufe=9Sdter, je^^unb no(^ (toie 
bomaliB unfere 3Sorfaf)ren) un§ Bet) alien angelegentlic^en S5orfaI= 
len (alfo and) Bet)m SSorfoII bet S^rouung) bie Sef)r niemaf)Ig foI= 
ten an§> unferm ^QuBt=®emer(fe fommen loffen. 1. Urn biefer 
Bifel)er nod) fo oblen unb gur Se]^r=UeBung bienenben @etoiffen§=" 
5ret)f)dt megen, nad^ h)eld)er irir aud) Bered^tigt finb,^ bie ef)e-33oII« 
3iel)ung unter un§ felBft 3U tl)un. 2. Um @otte§ @f)re toillen, bie 
burd) reine Sel^r foU geforbert merben. 3. Um unferer ©rBou* 
ung. 4. Um biefelBe Bet) unfern 9'Jad)!ommen Qufred)t gu erfiol' 
ten, als quc^ i!)nen 3u einem guten @fem:peL Um 5 ouc^ um @ot= 
te§ tocgen, ha er tool ein foId)e§ tion un§ ertoarten mag, ba^ toir 
bie Sef)re gemeinfdjofftl. qI§ oud) bafjeim fiir fid) fleiffig iibten unb 
bomit bor jebermanniglid) Bemeifen, ha"^ e§ un§ Qud^ toaB fonber- 

( 220 ) 

Marriage Contract, October 1779. (See page 73.) 

(Translation). Account and statement of the examina- 
tion which the housefathers regard necessary to be held of 
those who make request to have the marriage ceremony 
performed among us. 

May it be well-pleasing to the Lord and redound to his 

Our forefathers and parents in Germany called Schwenk- 
felders could reconcile and unite themselves in doctrine 
with no party and in consequence had with respect to the 
same to endure and suffer much inconvenience, could not 
publicly foster their doctrines and finally were even not 
allowed a place of refuge. They, therefore, resolved (on 
hearing of freedom of conscience here) to migrate to 
Pennsylvania which they did in the year 1734. And since 
the doctrine which they confessed as we yet do is the only 
principal article which differentiates us from other people 
and thus makes us a people, distinct or separate from 
others, it is becoming that we housefathers even now yet 
(as our forefathers then) should in all important events (as 
also in the case of marriage) permit doctrine at no time to 
cease to be our distinguishing mark. 

1. On account of the liberty of conscience hitherto pre- 
vailing, so precious and serviceable to the culture of doc- 
trine, according to which we are also permitted to perform 
the marriage ceremony among ourselves. 

2. On account of the glory of God which is to be ad- 
vanced by pure doctrine. 

3. On account of our own edification. 

( 221 ) 

222 The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

bares imb angelegene^ fet), betenttoegen bon anbern ^Koldern un= 
terfc^ieben 311 fcrjn. Safier mart fid) Uetpflirfitet BefurtbeTi, imb 
norf) befinbet, bieienigen fo bie framing Bet) un§ begefirt geleiftet 
5u f)Q&en, itnb fernerl)in bege^jren mi3d)ten, [ie nid)t fo |3latt, ab3u= 
toeifen, urn fie aud) ()iemit nid)t bon ber SeT)re meg gu lenfen, nod^ 
un§ felbft fdjamlic^ bor @ott imb 2)?enfd)en baraufteHen, qI» nid)t 
ac^tertbe ouf Sef)re iinb sufammen bieneu bal)er r)Qben iDtr e§ fUr 
notbig gead)tet, baf3 mir fie in ^iirtse, auf folgenbe jtoet) gragen 
erfud)ten nnb anf^ ©emerde ber Sefir leitetett, nnb gtoar t)orne{)m= 
lid) ben Srdutigom tuie folgt. 1. £)b er fid) ouc^ mol bebad)t, ge- 
^riifft nnb unterfnd)ct babe, bofs c§ if)m nm @otte§ Gbre intb ber 
eigeneit §et)I§ megen nm nnfete Sebre i\\ tbnn fet) (bie ibni bod) 
nnn nidbt unbefonnt fet)n merbe) nnb '^q5^ er foldbe Qn§ eigenem 
unterfnd)cn nnb $8egriffe fitr rid)tig bnlte, nnb folglid) au§ fret)em 
SBiKen, nnb nngestonngenem (Semittbe fid) an ford)e anfd)Iief3en 
nnb snftimmen fbnne, fo "i^xx"^ c^ fief)/ f oi^ fid) fefbft nnb bie ©einen 
berfelben nadj @otte§ berle^en in§ fiinfftige trenlid) balten unb 
biefelbe mit fammt ben anbern tootle I)elffen ^flegcn nnb unter= 
ftii^cn? Itnb ob feine berlobte ond) eigentlid) eineg fold)en SBiEe-nS 

Itnb roeil nad) ben Sanbe§=@efeten, einc borgefejste 'i^erfon, 
bie 2:rdnnngen berridbten mufe, unb toir aber feine boben; Ob er 2 
fid) and^ jn bem entfd)Iieffen fbnte, toenn funfftig bin, ein nnb anbe- 
rer, ondb- in bergleicben Stngelegenbeiten toie er gegentodrtig, inbd)te 
fommen nnb ein fold)e§ unter nn§ nnb bon nn§, begebrte ibm ge= 
meinfd)afftlid) mit ben anbern tooHe fud)en bnrd) sn b^Iffen, nnb 
einen ^aufe=2Sater lielffen anftimmen, bem e§ iibergeben toiirbe, 
bie S^rauung gu ik)VCS\R 

SBenn benn einfdltig nnb trenlic^ anf bicfe stoet) gragen ge« 
toilliget nnb sngeftimmet toorben, fo btit man§ fiir biHig geod)tet, 
einem foId£)en gu toillfabren, babet) man \i<^^^ befte gcboffet, inbem 
man niemanben in§ ^erl^e febcn fan. ^icranf \)oX man nod) fitr 
niilslid) gebalten ibnen anjuratben (toie and) bon 5tlter§ '\)tx. bet)m 

Marriage Contract. 223 

4. To maintain the same among our posterity and to 
give them a good example. 

5. For God's sake also who may indeed expect of us 
that we shall both jointly and also privately at home culti- 
vate the same and thus show before every one that it is to 
us a serious and notable matter to be in this regard a 
people separate from others. 

Wherefore, we have found ourselves obligated both in 
the past and the present with regard to those who desire to 
have the marriage ceremony performed among us, and in 
the future may desire, not to turn these so flatly aside and 
thus direct them away from the doctrine and also show 
ourselves to our shame before God and man as not regard- 
ing our doctrine and not working together. 

We have, therefore, regarded it necessary by the fol- 
lowing two questions to appeal to them and in particular 
to the groom and direct their attention to doctrine as a dis- 
tinguishing mark. i. Whether he had carefully reflected, 
weighed and examined himself that he earnestly took to 
heart the glory of God, his own salvation and our own doc- 
trine (that would indeed not be unknown to him) and that 
as a result of his own investigation and understanding he 
regards the same as correct and hence of his free will and 
unconstrained mind can attach himself and give assent to 
the same so that he for himself and his own by God's grace 
will in the future help to cultivate and support the same? 
And whether his betrothed for herself also gives assent to 
the same? 

And since by the laws of the country an appointed per- 
son must perform the ceremony and we have none. 2. If 
in the future some one or other under circumstances simi- 
lar to his own should come and request the same of and by 
us whether he could assent to this, that he would in com- 


The Pennsylvania- German Society. 

©f)riften=2SoMe gefd)er)eTi) bofe Me Srout'Seute, bon bem ber fie 
trauen folte, fid^ borljero nod) t)on i^m nu§ ©l)rtftli(^er Sefir lijjen 
Befragen imb imterriditen. 3" h)el(^em, [o Btfe!)€r nad) oBigem 
^nnlialt eingetotlliget avtd^i r)ier5u, role Billid), oHe berftanben 
l^nBen. SSeld^e oBet Bifefier ber ^flegung b'er Se^r Tiid)t Bet)ge' 
tr)o5nt, itnb gleiditool foldien Sien[t su leiftcn bon un§ Begel^ret, 
bo f)QBen fid) bie $aufe=3Sater, ben SBrautigom tt)Q§ mel^r gu Befra» 
gen bert)flic^tet Befnnben um 3U erfal^ren trie e§ um feme Stnge* 
legenl^eit 3ur Se^ir fteBet. SBer fid) nun aBer Bet) feiner Beborfte* 
I)enben ^rauung iw oBiger 93efragung nid)t berfte^ien fan, ho, fon* 
nen tt)ir itn§ and) nod) SQnbe§=@efe^en nnb (£r)nftli(^er SSerfoffung 
nid)t Befugt oditen un§ mit if)m 3U fold^em tric^tigen offentIid)en 
§anbel einsulaffen. 

(^oId)e§ Beseugen bie ^Qn^=3}ater foluol alte alS junge, mit 
if)rer eigenen §Qnb. 

©firifto^fl ©d)ur^. 
6f)riftop{) Sacfel. 
©eorge SBigner. 
Sofian Sadel. 
2ReId)ior ©d^ul^. 
g^riftop^ ^TiBer. 
e^rifto|3^ .<0offmQn. 
2)?eId)ior SlriBel, jun. 
5Dabib ^xieBel. 
§tBra!^am S)refd)er. 
9rBrQf)(im Sadel. 
SfBrol^ain SltteBel. 
$Qn^ (Sf)riftobr) ^liBner. 
©eorge ^rieBel. 
©eorge 9lnber§, 
©eorge $ei)bri(^. 
(Seorge ^rieBel. 
gfiriftopl) ar?efd)tcr. 
3WeI(^ior ^adel. 
2[6ra!)cim ©c^ul^. 
a3al^er SkouS. 

©eorg ^adel. 
©firiftopl^er ®d)ul^, jun. 
(£Q§|?er ^adel. 
^acoB Scidel. 
@regorin§ ©d)«I^. 
9Jfattf)o§ ©erl^arbl. 
^eremiaS ^adel. 
STnbreag ©c^nl^. 
©eorge S)refd^er. 
S>abib ©d)ul^. 
SJal^er ©d^nl^. 
®eorge ©(^nl^. 
2lnbreQ§ ^teBel. 
2tBraf)Qm ^tiBel. 
^eremiag ^ieBel. 
efiriftopf) Sadel ^iiffer. 
2)?eId)ior (©d)uBert mefer. 
SfBrofiam $eirid). 
Crfiriftop^ ^eifd)ter. 
Sabib ©d)ul^. 

Marriage Contract. 225 

mon with the others befriend such a one and help to select 
a housefather to whom the performance of the marriage 
ceremony might be entrusted. 

These two questions having been sincerely and honestly 
agreed and assented to, it was deemed in place to accede 
to the request of such a one in hope for the best since no 
one can see into the heart. Hereupon it was also consid- 
ered salutary to advice them (as was the custom among 
Christian people in earlier times) that those engaged to be 
married should beforehand be catechized and instructed by 
the one who was to marry them. To the foregoing hith 
erto approved as given above all have appropriately given 
assent. In case of those who did not hitherto support our 
doctrines and who yet made request to have such service 
rendered by us, the housefathers found themselves under 
obligation to question the groom somewhat more fully to 
determine how much he was concerned about our doc- 
trine. If anyone can, however, not consent to the above 
questions in the matter of his approaching marriage we can 
not consider ourselves authorized by the laws of the Land 
and Christian organization to enter upon such an important 
public act with him. 

The housefathers both old and young bear testimony to 
the above in their own handwriting. 



A CT, the Test, 154-156, 207-219. 
^ Allegiance to Penn'a, Pledge 

of, 35, 140. 
Althouse, Daniel, 48. 
Altona, 31, 32. 
Amsterdam, 25, 32. 
Anders, Abraham, 49. 
Anders, EUwood, 49. 
Anders, George (i), 128. 
Anders, George (2), 48, 128, 129, 

158, 224. 
Andrew, Saint, the ship, 32, 33, 103. 
Anhalt-Cothen, 30. 
Anspach, F. R., 200. 
Antes, Henry, 43, 109, no, 112, 114. 
Armenruh, 20. 
Augsburg, 5. 

Augsburg Confession, 17. 
Austerity, 31, 56. 
Atlantic Ocean, 33, 34. 

BAPTISM, II, 28, 118. 
Baus, Christopher, 103, 105. 
Bechtel, John, 109. 
Becker, Jost, 109. 
Benezet, Anthony, 190. 
Benezet, John, 44. 
Benzel, George, 109. 
Berthelsdorf, 26-28, 31, 103. 
Bertolet, John, 109. 
Beyer, Abraham, 43, 172. 
Beyer, Andrew, 49, 172. 
Bibighaus, 173. 
Bible, 9. 

Bibliography, 183-202. 
Boehme, Jacob, 57, 185. 
Bohler, Peter, in. 
Bonisch, George, 40, 103-106, 112. 
Bohemia, 2, 17. 
Books, (see Literature). 
Bossens, William, 109. 
Brandenburg, 29. 
Brethren of the Skippack, Associa- 

ated, 42, 57, 109, no, 112. 
Brey, Abraham, 47. 


Bryan, George, 157. 
Bugenhagen, 3. 

Business, Church, Method of con- 
ducting, 94. 
Byuschanse Brothers, 32, 33. 

pALVERT, George, 37. 
^ Carl of Miinsterberg, 2. 
Cassel, Abraham H., 158. 
Cassel, David M., 48. 
Catechism, (see Religious Instruc- 
Catholic (see Jesuit Mission), i, 21, 


Charity Fund, 33, 88, loi, 171. 

Charles VI., 21, 23, 24, 38. 

Charlotte, Queen of England, 190. 

Children, Instruction of, (see Educa- 

Children, Consecration of, 161. 

Christian Endeavor Societies, 102. 

Church, 10, 81. 

Citizens, Rights and Duties of, 139, 

Clothing, Regulations concerning, 

95, 172. 
Community, Efforts to establish a 

Schwenkfelder, 30, 40. 
Conestoga, 105, 107. 
Cologne, I. 

Conferences, General, 94, 95. 
Conference of 1762, 64. 
Constitution of 1782. 

Adoption of, 71-79. 

Life under, 80-102. 

Editions of, 80. 
Conversion, 3, 8, lo. 
Cranz, 104. 
Crautwald, 4. 
Cressman, Frederick, 45. 

DAVIS, John, 129 
DeBenneville, 52. 
Depreciation of Money, 131. 
Deputies to Vienna, 82-84. 



Derstine, Henry, 48. 

Diaconate, The, 86, 87. 

Dippel, 130. 

Discipline, 92. 

Doctrine, 7, 72, 113, 119, 130, 183, 

185, 221. 
Doerbaum, John, 129. 
Dorn, Melchoir, 25. 
Dotterer, Henry S., 192. 
Dresden, 29, 31. 
Dresher, Abraham, 222. 
Dresher, Christopher, 45, 48, 144. 
Dresher George (i), 38, 42. 
Dresher, George (2), 222. 
Dunkers, 150. 

PCKSTEIN, John, 106, no, 113. 

^ Edelman, 130. 

Education, Religious, 18, 58, 6r, 64, 
66, 73. 76, 81, 85, 91, 95, 98, 102, 
113, 121, 123, 134, 137, 162-167, 
171-179, 187, 188. 

Education, Secular, 120-138, 162. 

Elbe River, 32. 

Eschenbach, in. 

Eucharist, (see Lord's Supper). 

Evans, Cadwallader, 41. 

PAITH, 10. 

^ Falckner Swamp, 41, 42, 107, 

114, 143, 156. 
Farm Life, 174-176. 
Fauth, John Jacob, 42. 
Ferdinand, King, 4. 
Fetterman, Leon. 47. 
Flinn, Edmund, 88. 
Fogelsville, 42. 
Forbearance, 13. 
Forgiveness, 9. 
Formula of Government, 80. 
Frankfurt, I. 
Frederick Augustus I, 26. 
Frederick Augustus II, 26. 
Frederick the Great, 25, 53. 
Frederick township, 109. 
Frell, George, 194. 
Freed, William, 49. 
Frey, Andreas, 109. 
Frey, Henry, 109. 
Frey, William, 109. 
Fresenius, 31, 108. 
Friedersdorf, 25. 
Friedrich II., 2-4. 

Friendly Association, 144-148. 
Friends, 36, 150, (see Friendly Asso- 
ciation. Pemberton). 
Funeral Customs, 180-182. 

^ morial Day). 
Georgia, 30, 104, 106, 114. 
Gerhard, John, 48. 
Gerhard, Matthias, 222. 
Germantown, 109. 
Glatz, 17. 

Gmelen, Matthias, 109. 
Gorlitz, 25, 26, 199. 
Goshenhoppen, 40, 62, 141. 
Graeme, Thomas, 140. 
Gwynedd, 56. 

UAAG, Andrew, 128. 
^^ Haagen, Jacob, 190. 
Haarlem, 32, 33. 
Hanisch, 29. 
Halteman, John, 48. 
Hamburg, 29, 31. 
Hamilton Tract, 45. 
Hanover, Upper, 56. 
Harpersdorf 20, 186, 192. 
Hartranft, Chester D., 16, 47, 202. 
Hartranft, Tobias, 38, 204. 
Hausvater, 62, 63, 66, 94. 
Heckler, Israel, 48. 
Heebner, Balzer, 173. 
Heebner, Christopher, 45, 4c. 
Heebner, David, 42, 45, 49, 71. 
Heebner, George, 43, 45, 48, 114, 

Heebner, Hans, 43. 
Heebner, Hans Christopher, 49, 68, 

128, 222. 
Heebner, H. H., 49. 
Heebner, Jacob, 40. 
Heebner, Dr. Melchior, 39, 42, 43, 

Heebner, Wayne, 49. 
Heintze Correspondence, 45, 68, 184, 

Hereford, 143. 
Herrnhut, 25, 26. 
Heydrick, Abraham, 48, 158, 200, 

Heydrick, Balzer, 42, 158. 
Heydrick, Casper, 41. 



Heydrick, Hon. Christopher, 23 

Heydrick, George, 41, 48, 128, 158, 

Heydrick, Mrs. George, 162. 
Hiestand, Nathaniel, 47. 
Hiller, Michael, 18, 178. 
Hockenau, 20. 
Hofel, 20. 
Hoffman, Balzer, 20, 22, 23, 24, 31, 

38, 40, 41, 56, 58, 62, 63, 68, 69. 

71, Ii6, 120, 165, 178, 188, 195, 196. 
Hoffman, Christopher (i), 22. 
Hoffman, Christopher (2), 48, 68, 

128, 131, 172, 186, 193, 198, 222. 
Hoffman, George, 41. 
Hoffman, Ursula, 38. 
Hoffrichter, Balzer, 22. 
Hohburg, 178, 194. 
Holland, 17. 
Holstein, Henry, 109. 
Homelife, 170. 
Hosensack Academy, 86, 134-136, 

162, 165, 171. 
Huss, I. 
Hymn-book Published, 68. 

■'• Indian Troubles, 140-148. 
Isenberg, 29. 
Italy, 17. 

J Jenkins, H. M., 201. 
Jesuit Mission, 21-24, 28. 
Jesus Christ, 8, 9. 
John, Martin, Jr., 18. 
Johnson, E. E. S., 85. 
Jonas, Justus, 3. 


■^ Kelpius, 191. 

Kinsey, John, 140. 

Kooken, John, 109. 

Krauss, Balzer( i ). 42, 45, 47, 58, 131. 

Krauss, Balzer (2), 224. 

Krauss, Christopher, 43, 48, 68, 128, 

131. 145- 
Krauss, John, 135, 199. 
Krauss, Levi, 42, 47. 
Kriebel, Abraham (i), 48, 128, 158, 

Kriebel, Abraham (2), 222. 

Kriebel, Abraham H., 49. 

Kriebel, Abraham K., 48. 

Kriebel, Allen K., 48. 

Kriebel, Andrew, 222. 

Kriebel, Casper, 41, 68, 115, 128, 

129, 144, 145, 196. 
Kriebel, Christopher f i), 38, 41. 
Kriebel, Christopher (2), 48, 64, 99, 

100, 128, 163, 164, 180, 193, 195, 

196, 222. 
Kriebel, David, 49, 222. 
Kriebel, George (i), 45, 47, 68, 100, 

128, 129, 131, 136, 147, 155, 156, 

159, 162, 209, 224. 
Kriebel, George (2), 222. 
Kriebel, Isaac, 48. 
Kriebel, Jeremiah, 224. 
Kriebel, Melchior (i), 41, 49, 71, 

105, 107, 128. 
Kriebel, Melchior (2), 222. 
Kriebel, O. S., 85, 138. 
Kriebel, Reuben, 200. 

T ADIES' Aid Societies, 102. 

■'-' Landis, Elias, 48. 

Langneundorf, 20. 

Laubgrund, 20. 

Lauterseifen, 20. 

Leade, Jane, 39, 57, 185. 

Leidich, John Philip, 45. 

Levan, Sebastian, 155, 207. 

Lewis, Peter, 48. 

Liberty, 11, 14, 23, 30, 31, 55, 77, 
113, 117, 148, 152, 209. 

Liegnitz, i, 3, 4. 

Life, Private, 20, 56, 61, 93, 97, 108, 

Literary Fund, 90. 

Literature (see Board of Publica- 
tion), 15, 19, 23, 29, 31, 34,37,47. 
56, 65, 67, 68, 70, 73, 80, 84, 89, 
90, 95. 97, 102, 133, 142, 147, 164- 
166, 183-202. 

Lukens, Joseph, 144. 

Lukewarmness, 20, 60, 62, 63, 64, 
72, 81. 

Lusatia, Upper, 260. 

Luther, 3, 4. 

Lutherans, 4, 22. 

]U"ACK,John, 144. 

■'■'■'■ Mackinet, Blasius, 109. 

Macungie, 42, 56, 62, 140. 



Magdeburg, 31, 32. 

Marckel, Barbara, 24. 

Marriage, 62, 69, 70, 91, 167-169, 

189, 219-224. 
Matthews, Edward, 83. 
Mechling, Samuel, 45. 
Meetinghouses, 82. 
Membership, 80-82, 94. 
Memorial Day, 36, 62, 63, 69, 98, 

148, 156. 
Mennonites, 24, 29, 32. 
Mentzel, George, 24. 
Merkel, George, 109. 
Meschter, Christopher (i), 38, 224. 
Meschter, Christopher (2), 224. 
Meschter, David, 42, 43, 47, 146, 

Meschter, Gregorius, 47. 
Meschter, Melchior, 49. 
Methacton, 109. 
Metz, Sam, 49. 
Migration, 21, 29, 34, 39. 
Milan, Johannes, 21. 
Ministry, 84-86, 88, loi. 
Missions, 89, 102. 
Molter, III. 
Moravia, 17. 
Moravians, (see Spangenberg, Zin- 

zendorf, Nitschman, Georgia), 59. 
Morris, Robert Hunter, 14S. 
Moyer, Abraham, 51. 
Muhlenberg, 55, 57, 191. 

MAMES applied to Schwenkfeld, 

Neander, 21. 

Neisser, George, 106, 109. 

Newman, Christopher, 45, 128, 168. 

Newman, Rosina, 168. 

Newman, David, 49, 128. 

Newmooners, 107. 

Nitschke, 47. 

Nitschman, Anna, iii. 

Nitschman, Bishop, 104, 105, no, 

Non-militants, 150, 152, 158, 160, 

Nuremberg, 5. 
Nuremberg Truce of, 17. 

nCCUPATIONS, 20, 27, 52, 174- 
^ CEcolampadius, 4. 
Oglethorpe, 104. 

Oley, 107, 109, 114. 
Organization, 14, 20, 55-70, 71, Si. 
Orwig, W. W., 191. 


•'- Pemberton, Israel, 147, 190. 

Penn, William, 37. 

Penn, Thomas, 104. 

Pennypacker, Hon. S. W., 36, 185, 

Perkasie Manor, 41. 
Perkiomen Seminary, loi, 138. 
Persecution (see Jesuit Mission, Zin- 

zendorf), 3, 5, 18. 
Philadelphia, 36. 
Pioneer life, 50-54. 
Pima, 31. 
Plymouth, 32. 
Podiebrad, King, 2. 
Poland, King of, 29. 
Poor, (see Charity Fund). 
Pott, William, 109. 
Prayer for children, 82. 
Proselytes, 82. 
Prussia, King of, 29. 
Publication, Board of, 89. 


•'^^ Redemptioners, 30, 37, 114, 172. 
Reeser, William, 151. 
Reformation by the Middle Way, 4, 

Reformation in Silesia, 3-5. 
Regent, Carolus Xavier, 21. 
Reichel, 31, 105, 108, 109, iii, 115. 
Reinwald, Christopher, 42, 48. 

Revolution, The American, 148-159, 

Ritter, Franz, 109. 
Roberts, John, 45. 
Robinson, John, 37. 
Rotterdam, 32. 
Rupp, I. D., 200. 


^ Salford, 56. 

Salvation, 7-9. 

Sauer, Christopher, 68, 112, 194. 

SchaefiFer, Pastor, 27. 

Schell, Michael, 45. 

Schmidt, Jost, 109. 

Schraoyer, Solomon, 47. 



Schneider, Benjamin, 173. 

Schneider, Father, 141. 

Schneider, Friedrich, 47, 184, 201. 

Schneider, Pastor, 21. 

Schools, (see Education). 

Schubert, Christopher, 38, 49. 

Schubert, David, 48, 49. 

Schubert, Melchoir, 224. 

Schultz, Abraham Ti), 48. 

Schultz, Abraham (2), 172. 

Schultz, Abraham (3), 224. 

Schultz, Andrew, 222. 

Schultz, Balzer, 131, 171, 195, 222. 

Schultz, Benjamin, 198. 

Schultz, Christopher (i), 29, 31, 34, 
36, 39, 42, 44, 47, 65, 66, 68, 69, 72, 
73, 77, 81, 99, 115, 120, 128, 129, 
130, 131, 141, 144. 145. 146, 148, 
149. 151, 153. 155, 168, 172, 183, 
189, 194-199, 207-219, 222. 

Schultz, Christopher (2), 222. 

Schultz, Christopher, Jr., 86. 

Schultz, Christopher K., 172. 

Schultz, David (i), 39, 44, 47, 128, 
144, 145. 172, 174, 192. 

Schultz, David (2), 222. 

Schultz, David (3), 224. 

Schultz, Murder of Mrs. David, 44. 

Schultz, E. H., 48. 

Schultz, George (i), 40, 42, 43, 183. 

Schultz, George (2), 34, 39, 40. 

Schultz, George (s), 42, 43. 44i 68, 
128, 145. 

Schultz, George (4), 128, 145, 222. 

Schultz, Gregorius, 42, 45, 48, 68, 
128, 140. 

Schultz, Gregory, 222. 

Schultz, Horatio K., 44, 47. 

Schultz, Isaac, no, 135, 140, 143, 
161, 170. 173, 199. 

Schultz, Jeremiah K., 44, 47. 

Schultz, John, 85, 100, 135, 199. 

Schultz, Joshua, 95, 185, 199, 200. 

Schultz, Melchior (i), 23. 

Schultz, Melchior (2), 32,45, 48. 

Schultz, Melchior (3), 42, 43, 44, 
47, 68, 128, 129, 145, 146, 222. 

Schultz, Nathan, 47. 

Schultz, Susanna, 38. 

Schwedler, 25. 

Schwenkfeld, 1-16, 18. 

Schwenkf elders, 

a Term of Reproach, 14. 


Homes of Early, 17. 

Number of, at death of Schwenk- 
feld, 20. 

Persecuted, 17, 18. 

Form of Worship, 18. 

At Opening of i8th Century, 20. 

Last Professing in Silesia, 25, 

Under Jesuit Mission, 21-25. 

In Saxony, 26-31. 

Migration to Pennsylvania, 31-34. 

Founding Homes in Pennsyl- 
vania, 35-54. 

Declare allegiance, 35. 

Picture of " Landing " suggested, 


a View of the Immigrants, 37-39. 

Mentioned by Tourist V. Beek, 
40. _ 

Religious condition, 1734, 55, 60. 

Not Organized Prior to 1782, 71. 

Relation to Doctrines of Schwenk- 
feld, 80. 

and Zinzendorf, 103-119. 

Peaceful, 114. 

Immigrants, Intelligent, 120. 

and Education, 120-139. 

as Citizens, 139-160. 

Non -militants, 152, 153, 156, 158, 
160, 207-219. 

Opinion on. Expressed, 157. 

and Public Office, 172. 

Private Life of, 161-182. 

Descendants of, scattered, 203, 
Secret Societies, 90. 
Seibert, Henry R., 48. 
Seiler, Hans Ulrich, 48, 172. 
Seipt, Casper, 49, 68, 128. 
Seipt, David, 40, 42, 44, 58, 196. 
Separation of Church and State, 11. 
Shuler, Rufus, 48. 
Silesia, 4, 17. 
Sin, 9. 

Skippack, 109. 
Smalcald, War of, 5. 
Smissen, van der, 32. 
Snyder, Henry, 49, 128, 168. 
Snyder, Henry D., 48. 
Spangenberg, 39, 59, 104-112. 
Spirituality of Religion, i, 7. 
Supper, the Lord's, 4, 11. 
Stedman, 32, 34, 38, 103. 



Stiefel, 109. 

Stock, George Carl, 132, 171. 
Strasburg, 5. 
Suabia, 17 

Sunday-schools (see Religious Ed- 
ucation), loi, 165. 
Switzerland, 17. 
Synods of 1742, 112-118. 

Till, William, 140. 
Towamencin, 56, 130. 
Tubingen, 5. 

IJLM, I, 5. 

ITIENNA, 22-24. 
* Vienna, Bishop of, 4. 

WAGNER, Abraham, 43, 53, 55, 
**^ 57, 63, 109, 191, 194, 196. 
Wagner, Christopher, 45, 49. 
Wagner, David, 204. 
Wagner, Melchior, 49, 149. 
Wahn, Ed., 49. 
War, the French and Indian, 141- 

War, the Revolutionary, 148-159. 
Warmer, Andrew, 128. 
Weber, Christian, 109. 
Weber Christopher, 144. 
Weichenhan, 18, 17S, 198, 199. 
Weisenberg, 29. 
Weiser, C. Z., 37, 193. 
Weiser, Daniel, 185, 200, 
Weiser, Conrad, 146. 
Weiss, George, 28, 31, 36, 37, 39, 56, 

58, 61, 69, 105, 107, 108, no, 113, 
120, 186, 197. 

Werner, 18, 178. 

Westphalia, Treaty of, 17, 21, 23, 26. 

Whitefield, no, in. 

Wiegner, Abraham, 48. 

Wiegner, Adam, 24, 25. 

Wiegner, Christopher, 39-41, 48, 57- 

59, io7-n5, 192. 
Wiegner, George, 222. 
Wiegner, Mrs. George, 184. 
Wiegner, Melchior, 42, 43, 129, 146. 
Wilkinson, Jemima, 204. 
Wiegner, Rosina, 128. 

Wiegner, Susanna, 38, 
Williams, David, 45. 
Wistar, Casper, 40, 42. 
Wittenberg, 3. 
Worcester, 56. 
Worship, Family, 178, 179. 
Public, 18, 28, 61, 66, 68, 179. 

VEAKEL, Abraham (i), 42, 45. 
■*• Yeakel, Abraham (2), 49, 128. 
Yeakel, Abraham, 222. 
Yeakel, Andrew, 135. 
Yeakel, Balzer (i), 41. 
Yeakel, Balzer (2), 42, 45, 140. 
Yeakel, Balzer (3), 47, 128. 
Yeakel, Balzer (4), 48. 
Yeakel, Barbara, 47. 
Yeakel, Casper (i), 42. 
Yeakel, Casper (2), 222. 
Yeakel, Christopher (i), 38, 43, 49, 

Yeakel, Christopher (2), 48, 68, 

128, 129, 222. 
Yeakel, Christopher (3), 135. 
Yeakel Cottage, 43. 
Yeakel, Daniel, 47. 
Yeakel, David (i), 38, 42. 
Yeakel, David (2), 135. 
Yeakel, George (i), 41. 
Yeakel, George (2), 47, 222. 
Yeakel, Hans, 48. 
Yeakel, Hans Heinrich, (or John), 

42, 45, 47, 68, 128, 140. 
Yeakel, Jacob, 222. 
Yeakel, Jeremiah, 47, 222. 
Yeakel, Jesse, 201. 
Yeakel, John, 222. 
Yeakel, Joseph, 47. 
Yeakel, Josephus, 200. 
Yeakel, Melchior, 224. 
Yeakel, Regina, 38. 
Yeakel, Rosina, 168. 
Yeakel, Susanna, 38. 
Young, Training of, see Education. 


" Zimmerman, John, 107. 

Zinzendorf, 25-30, 39, 103-119. 

Zurich, 4. 

Zwingli, 4. 

2356 - 

3 1 198 01934 8460